Synopses & Reviews
Assuming no prior knowledge of linguistics, AN INTRODUCTION TO LANGUAGE, Ninth Edition, is appropriate for a variety of fields--including education, languages, psychology, anthropology, English, and teaching English as a Second Language (TESL)--at both the undergraduate and graduate levels. This completely updated edition retains the clear descriptions, humor, and seamless pedagogy that have made the text a perennial best-seller, while adding new information and exercises that render each topic fresh, engaging, and current.
"It's the most comprehensive introduction to linguistics ever, and it never strays far from my elbow."
"An Introduction to Language is comprehensive and inclusive. It gives students an excellent introduction to language study and outlines the concepts in general linguistics as well as sociolinguistics and recent work in language processing. There seems to be something for everyone."
". . . I appreciate the expertise this text represents. This is a solid scholarly study of linguistics."
"I am pleased with the text's wide selection of topics--I feel like the students are getting more for their money. I encourage interested students to read further in the text--even after the course ends. I think many keep it as a reference for future work."
"I have used this book for 29 years already and am still very happy with it. So far, new editions have come closer and closer to my ideal textbook. Even now, it's the only textbook for any of my courses that does just what I want it to do in terms of topics covered and level of difficulty. Just as important, the students find it clear and straightforward, yet fun and intriguing as well. . . ."
AN INTRODUCTION TO LANGUAGE is ideal for use at all levels and in many different areas of instruction, including education, languages, psychology, anthropology, English, teaching English as a Second Language (TESL), and linguistics. All chapters in this best-seller have been revised to reflect recent discoveries and new understanding of linguistics and languages.
About the Author
Victoria Fromkin received her bachelor's degree in economics from the University of California, Berkeley, in 1944 and her M.A. and Ph.D. in linguistics from the University of California, Los Angeles, in 1963 and 1965, respectively. She was a member of the faculty of the UCLA Department of Linguistics from 1966 until her death in 2000, and served as its chair from 1972 to 1976. From 1979 to 1989 she served as the UCLA Graduate Dean and Vice Chancellor of Graduate Programs. She was a visiting professor at the universities of Stockholm, Cambridge, and Oxford. Professor Fromkin served as president of the Linguistics Society of America in 1985, president of the Association of Graduate Schools in 1988, and chair of the Board of Governors of the Academy of Aphasia. She received the UCLA Distinguished Teaching Award and the Professional Achievement Award, and served as the U.S. Delegate and a member of the Executive Committee of the International Permanent Committee of Linguistics (CIPL). She was an elected Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the New York Academy of Science, the American Psychological Society, and the Acoustical Society of America, and in 1996 was elected to membership in the National Academy of Sciences. She published more than one hundred books, monographs, and papers on topics concerned with phonetics, phonology, tone languages, African languages, speech errors, processing models, aphasia, and the brain/mind/language interface--all research areas in which she worked. Professor Fromkin passed away on January 19, 2000, at the age of 76.Robert Rodman received his bachelor's degree in mathematics from the University of California, Los Angeles, in 1961, a master's degree in mathematics in 1965, a master's degree in linguistics in 1971, and his Ph.D. in linguistics in 1973. He has been on the faculties of the University of California at Santa Cruz, the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Kyoto Industrial College in Japan, and North Carolina State University, where he is currently professor of computer science specializing in the areas of forensic linguistics and computer speech processing.Nina Hyams received her bachelor's degree in journalism from Boston University in 1973 and her M.A. and Ph.D. degrees in linguistics from the Graduate Center of the City University of New York in 1981 and 1983, respectively. She joined the UCLA faculty in 1983, where she is currently professor of linguistics. Her main areas of research are childhood language development and syntax. She is author of the book LANGUAGE ACQUISITION AND THE THEORY OF PARAMETERS (D. Reidel Publishers, 1986), a milestone in language acquisition research. She has also published numerous articles on the development of syntax, morphology, and semantics in children. She has been a visiting scholar at the University of Utrecht and the University of Leiden in the Netherlands and has given numerous lectures throughout Europe and Japan.
Table of Contents
Part I: THE NATURE OF HUMAN LANGUAGE. 1. What Is Language? Linguistic Knowledge. Knowledge of the Sound System. Knowledge of Words. Arbitrary Relation of Form and Meaning. The Creativity of Linguistic Knowledge. Knowledge of Sentences and Nonsentences. Linguistic Knowledge and Performance. What Is Grammar? Descriptive Grammars. Prescriptive Grammars. Teaching Grammars. Language Universals. The Development of Grammar. Sign Languages: Evidence for Language Universals. American Sign Language (ASL). Animal "Languages". "Talking" Parrots. The Birds and the Bees. What We Know about Language. Summary. References for Further Reading. Exercises. 2. Brain and Language. The Human Brain. The Localization of Language in the Brain. Aphasia. Surgical and Experimental Evidence of Lateralization. Brain Imaging Technology. Plasticity and Brain Lateralization in Early Life. The Modular Nature of Language. Specific Language Impairment. Developmental Dissociations. The Genetic Basis of Language. The Critical Period. A Critical Period for First Language Development. Critical Periods in Other Species. The Evolution of Language. Summary. References for Further Reading. Exercises. Part II: GRAMMATICAL ASPECTS OF LANGUAGE. 3. Morphology: The Word of Language. Dictionaries. Content Words and Function Words. Morphemes: The Minimal Units of Meaning. Bound and Free Morphemes. Prefixes and Suffixes. Infixes. Circumfixes. Roots and Stems. Huckles and Ceives. Rules of Word Formation. Derivational Morphology. The Hierarchical Structure of Words. More About Derivational. Morphemes. Lexical Gaps. Rule Productivity. "Pullet Surprises". Sign Language Morphology. Word Coinage. Compounds. Meaning of Compounds. Universality of Compounding. Acronyms. Back-Formations. Abbreviations. Words from Names. Blends. Grammatical Morphemes. Inflectional Morphemes. Exceptions and Suppletions. Morphology and Syntax. Morphological Analysis: Identifying Morphemes. Summary. References for Further Reading. Exercises. 4. Syntax: The Sentence Patterns of Language. What the Syntax Rules Do. What Grammaticality Is Not Based On. Sentence Structure. Constituents and Constituency Tests. Syntactic Categories. Phrase Structure Trees and Rules. Some Conventions for Building Phrase Structure Trees. The Infinity of Language. Heads and Complements. Selection. What Heads the Sentence. Structural Ambiguities. More Structures. Sentence Relatedness. Transformational Rules. Structure Dependent Rules. Syntactic Dependencies. Wh Questions. UG Principles and Parameters. Sign Language Syntax. Summary. References for Further Reading. Exercises. 5. The Meanings of Language. Lexical Semantics (Word Meanings). Semantic Properties. Evidence for Semantic Properties. Semantic Properties and the Lexicon. More Semantic Relationships. -nyms. Homonyms and Polysemy. Synonyms. Antonyms. Formation of Antonyms. Hyponyms. Metonyms. Retronyms. Proper Names. Phrase and Sentence Meaning. Phrasal Meaning. Noun-Centered Meaning. Sense and Reference. Verb-Centered Meaning. Thematic Roles. Thematic Roles in Other Languages. The Theta-Criterion. Sentential Meaning. The "Truth" of Sentences. Paraphrase. Entailment. Contradiction. Events versus States. Pronouns and Coreferentiality. To Mean or Not to Mean. Anomaly: No Sense and Nonsense. Metaphor. Idioms. Pragmatics. Linguistic Context: Discourse Pronouns. The Articles The and A. Situational Context. Maxims of Conversation. Speech Acts. Presuppositions. Deixis. Summary. References for Further Reading. Exercises. 6. Phonetics: The Sounds of Language. Sound Segments. Identity of Speech Sounds. The Phonetic Alphabet. Articulatory Phonetics. Consonants. Places of Articulation. Bilabials. Labiodentals. Interdentals. Alveolars. Palatals. Velars. Uvulars. Glottal. Manner of Articulation. Voiced and Voiceless Sounds. Nasal and Oral Sounds. Stops. Fricatives. Affricates. Liquids. Glides. Approximants. Trills and Flaps. Clicks. Phonetic Symbols for American English Consonants. Vowels. Tongue Position. Lip Rounding. Diphthongs. Nasalization of Vowels. Tense and Lax Vowels.Different (Tongue) Strokes for Different Folks. Major Phonetic Classes. Noncontinuants and Continuants. Obstruents and Sonorants. Consonantal. Labials. Coronals. Anterior. Sibilants. Syllabic Sounds. Prosodic Features. Tone and Intonation. Phonetic Symbols and Spelling Correspondences. The "Phonetics" of Signed Languages. Summary. References for Further Reading. Exercises. 7. Phonology: The Sound Patterns of Language. The Pronunciation of Morphemes. The Pronunciation of Plurals. Further Examples of Allomorphs. Phonemes: The Phonological Units of Language. Vowel Nasalization in English as an Illustration of Allophones. Allophones of /t/. Minimal Pairs in ASL. Complementary Distribution. Distinctive Features of Phonemes. Feature Values. Nondistinctive Features. Phonemic Patterns May Vary Across Languages. Natural Classes of Speech Sounds. Feature Specifications for American. English Consonants and Vowels. The Rules of Phonology. Assimilation Rules. Dissimilation Rules. Feature-Changing Rules. Segment Insertion and Deletion Rules. Movement (Metathesis) Rules. From One to Many and from Many to One. The Function of Phonological Rules. Slips of the Tongue: Evidence for Phonological Rules. Prosodic Phonology. Syllable Structure. Word Stress. Sentence and Phrase Stress. Intonation. Sequential Constraints of Phonemes. Lexical Gaps. Why Do Phonological Rules Exist? Phonological Analysis: Discovering Phonemes. Summary. References for Further Reading. Exercises. Part III: THE PSYCHOLOGY OF LANGUAGE. 8. Language Acquisition. Mechanisms of Language Acquisition. Do Children Learn through Imitation? Do Children Learn through Reinforcement? Do Children Learn Language through Analogy? Do Children Learn through Structured Input? Children Construct Grammars. The Innateness Hypothesis. Stages in Language Acquisition. The Perception and Production of Speech Sounds. First Words. The Development of Grammar. The Acquisition of Phonology. The Acquisition of Word Meaning. The Acquisition of Morphology. The Acquisition of Syntax. The Acquisition of Pragmatics. The Development of Auxiliaries: A Case Study. Setting Parameters. The Acquisition of Signed Languages. Knowing More Than One Language. Childhood Bilingualism. Theories of Bilingual Development. Two Monolinguals in One Head. The Role of Input. Cognitive Effects of Bilingualism. Second Language Acquisition. Is L2 Acquisition the Same as L1 Acquisition? Native Language Influence in L2 Acquisition. The Creative Component of L2 Acquisition. A Critical Period for L2 Acquisition? Second-Language Teaching Methods. Can Chimps Learn Human Language? Gua. Viki. Washoe. Sarah. Learning Yerkish. Koko. Nim Chimpsky. Clever Hans. Kanzi. Summary. References for Further Reading. Exercises. 9. Language Processing: Human and Computer. The Human Mind at Work: Human Language Processing. Comprehension. The Speech Signal. Speech Perception and Comprehension. Comprehension Models and Experimental Studies. Lexical Access and Word Recognition. Syntactic Processing. Speech Production. Planning Units. Lexical Selection. Application and Misapplication of Rules. Nonlinguistic Influences. Computer Processing of Human Language. Text and Speech Analysis. Frequency Analysis, Concordances, and Collocations. Information Retrieval and Summarization. Spell Checkers. Machine Translation. Computers that Talk and Listen. Computational Phonetics and Phonology. Speech Recognition. Speech Synthesis. Computational Morphology. Computational Syntax. Computational Semantics. Computational Pragmatics. Computer Models of Grammar. Summary. References for Further Reading. Exercises. Part IV: LANGUAGE AND SOCIETY. 10. Language in Society. Dialects. Regional Dialects. Accents. Dialects of English. Phonological Differences. Lexical Differences. Dialect Atlases. Syntactic Differences. The "Standard". Language Purists. Banned Languages. The Revival of Languages. African American English (AAE). Phonology of African American English. R-Deletion. L-Deletion. Consonant Cluster Simplification. Neutralization of [I] and [E] Before Nasals. Diphthong Reduction. Loss of Interdental Fricatives. Syntactic Differences between AAE and SAE. Double Negatives. Deletion of the Verb "Be". Habitual "Be". History of African American English. Latino (Hispanic) English. Chicano English (ChE). Phonological Variables of ChE. Syntactic Variables in ChE. Lingua Francas. Pidgins and Creoles. Pidgins. Creoles. Styles, Slang, and Jargon. Styles. Slang. Jargon and Argot. Taboo or Not Taboo? Euphemisms. Racial and National Epithets. Language, Sex, and Gender. Marked and Unmarked Forms. The Generic "He". Language and Gender. Secret Languages and Language Games. Summary. References for Further Reading. Exercises. 11. Language Change: The Syllables of Time. The Regularity of Sound Change. Sound Correspondences. Ancestral Protolanguages. Phonological Change. Phonological Rules. The Great Vowel Shift. Morphological Change. Syntactic Change. Lexical Change. Addition of New Words. Borrowings or Loan Words. History through Loan Words. Loss of Words. Semantic Change. Broadening. Narrowing. Meaning Shifts. Reconstructing "Dead" Languages. The Nineteenth-Century Comparativists. Cognates. Comparative Reconstruction. Historical Evidence. Extinct and Endangered Languages. The Genetic Classification of Languages. Languages of the World. Types of Languages. Why Do Languages Change? Summary. References for Further Reading. Exercises. 12. Writing: The ABCs of Language. The History of Writing. Pictograms and Ideograms. Cuneiform Writing. The Rebus Principle. From Hieroglyphs to the Alphabet. Modern Writing Systems. Word Writing. Syllabic Writing. Consonantal Alphabet Writing. Alphabetic Writing. Reading, Writing, and Speech. Reading. Spelling. Spelling Pronunciations. Summary. References for Further Reading. Exercises. Glossary. Index.