Chapters include a chapter opening vignette, Introduction, Critical Thinking Questions, Summary, Key Terms, Web Destinations, For Further Reading and a Study Guide.
1. Invitation of Corrections.
How Does the Correctional System Function?
What Are the Three Dominant Perspectives in Corrections Today?
What Does It Mean to Have a Sociological Approach to Corrections?
Who Are the Participants in the Corrections System?
2. From Vengeance to Reform: An Historical Perspective.
What Were the Legal Codes of the Ancient World?
What Is the Relationship Between Social Contexts and the Justifications for Punishment?
How Did the Idea of Enlightenment Thinkers Influence the Development of Corrections?
Who Were the Early Prison Reformers?
3. The Development of Corrections in the United States.
What Was Distinctive About the Early History of Corrections in the Colonies?
What Was the Pennsylvania's Innovations in Penal Reform?
How Was the New York Penal System Different from the Pennsylvania Model?
What Does It Mean That Prisons Are Places for Rehabilitation?
How Has the Punishment of Women Differed from the Punishment of Men?
How Was Criminal Punishment in the South Different than Elsewhere?
What Is Distinctive about Corrections in the Twentieth Century?
4. The Punishment of Offenders.
What Are the Goals of Punishment?
How Do the Forms of Punishment Differ?
What Are the Main Theoretical Positions About Punishment and the Social System?
How Is Sentencing Related to the Correctional Process?
5. The Rise of Community-Based Corrections.
How Is Community-Based Corrections Changing?
What Is the Structure of Community-Based Corrections?
How Does Community-Based Corrections Function?
How Has the Rise of the Victims' Rights Movement Affected Community-Based Corrections?
How Did Probation Originate and Develop?
What Is the Present Landscape of Probation?
How Is Probation Administered?
How Does the Probation Officer Do His or Her Job?
What Are Probationers' Rights?
Is Probation Effective?
7. Intermediate Sanctions.
What Is the Continuum of Sanctions?
What Is a Fair Assessment of Intensive Supervision of Probation Programs (ISP)?
How About Restitution, Fines, and Community Services?
How Do Substance Abuse Treatment Programs Contribute to Intermediate Sanctions?
How About Day Reporting Sanctions?
What About Residential and Institutional Sanctions
What Is a Fair Evaluation of Intermediate Sanctions?
8. Parole, Surveillance, and Reentry Programs.
How Did Parole Develop in the Twentieth Century?
What Do Parole Practices Consist of Today?
What Takes Place During a Parole Hearing?
How Does the Parole Officer Function Today?
Why Is Release from Prison Traumatic?
What Are the Various Reentry Programs?
Why Does Parole Need Reinventing?
9. Local Institution.
How Did Jails Originate?
Who Is in Jail?
How Does One Adjust to Jail?
How Do People Get Out of Jail?
How Are Jails Run?
Is the Role of the Jail Officer Changing?
What Are the Issues of Jail Confinement?
What Trends Are Shaping the Jail?
10. Federal, State, And Private Institutions.
What Do Prisons Look Like Today?
To What Extent Do Prisons Mirror the Larger Society?
Who Has Jurisdictions over Prison Systems in the United States?
What Are the Main Types of Correctional Institutions?
What Are the Ingredients of a Humane Prison?
11. Correctional Managers and Officers.
What are the Changing Roles of Institutional Wardens?
How Have Management Styles of Wardens Changed?
What are the Challenges of Administration?
Who Actually Runs the Prison?
12. Institutional Violence.
What Has Happened to Prison Order?
What Are Expressions of Prison Violence?
What Are the Causes of Institutional Violence?
How Can Prison Violence Be Reduced?
13. Correctional Programs and Services.
What About Classification Systems?
What Treatment Programs Are Most Widely Used?
What Are the Most Popular Self-Help Programs?
Are Inmates Interested in Helping Others?
How About Prison Programs?
What Prison Services Are Offered?
How about Prison Industry Today?
14. The Male Prisoner.
How Has the Inmate World Changed?
What Are Special Groups of Male Prisoners?
What Is the Social Construction of “Making It in Prison”?
15. The Female Prisoner.
What Is the History of Women's Prisons?
How Does the Social Structure Function in Women's Prisons?
How About Women on Death Row?
How Do Women Cope with Prison Life?
What Are the Issues Involved with Women in Prison?
16. Juvenile Corrections.
What Is the History of Juvenile Justice?
How Does the Juvenile Justice System Function?
What Is the Early Processing of the Juvenile Justice System?
What Happens When a Juvenile Is Sent to Juvenile Corrections?
What About the Placement of Juveniles in Adult Prisons?
What Are the Issues of Juvenile Corrections?
17. The Death Penalty.
What Are the Roots of Capital Punishment?
Where Is the Death Penalty Today?
How Have Court Decisions Related the Death Penalty to the Constitution?
What Are the Arguments Favoring the Death Penalty?
What Are the Arguments Opposing the Death Penalty?
18. Incarceration Trends: Race, Gender, Class, and Age.
What Is the Relationship Between Race and Incarceration Trends?
What Is the Relationship Between Gender and Incarceration Trends?
What Is the Relationship Between Class and Incarceration Trends?
19. Politics, Law, and Prison Crowding.
How Serious Is the Problem of Prison Crowding?
How Can Increases in Prison Crowding Be Explained?
What Can Be Done to Reduce Prison Crowding?
20. Prisoners Rights.
What Has Been the Response of the U.S. Supreme Court to Prisoners' Rights?
What Are the Individuals Rights of Prisoners?
Why Has Correctional Reform Through the Courts Been Difficult?
What Has Been the Impact of the Prisoners' Rights Movement?