Synopses & Reviews
Isotope Dilution Mass Spectrometry (IDMS) has become an essential tool in research laboratories and is increasingly used in routine analysis labs (including environmental, food safety and clinical applications). This is the first textbook to present a comprehensive and instructive view of the theory and applications of this growing technique.
The main objective of this book is to cover the theory and applications of Isotope Dilution in Analytical Chemistry. The scope is comprehensive to include elemental analysis, speciation analysis, organic analysis and biochemical and clinical analysis together with applications in metabolism studies and traceability of goods. Until now there have been no books published with the same general scope (only book chapters on particular applications). This is a textbook focused at post-graduate level covering the basic knowledge required for doctoral studies in this field. Isotope Dilution Mass Spectrometry will also outline practical applications of interest for routine testing laboratories where isotope dilution procedures are implemented or can be implemented in the future. This unique book covers all the theoretical and practical aspects of Isotope Dilution Mass Spectrometry (IDMS). Due to the increasing application of IDMS in many research laboratories and the increasing implementation of IDMS methodologies in routine testing laboratories, scientists in industry and working in or affiliated to this area will this an invaluable source of information. Concerning the theoretical aspects, the authors present a uniform theoretical background which grows from previous developments in Organic, Speciation and Elemental analysis both in their own laboratory and in other laboratories around the world. This general approach will be simpler and will also include new emerging fields such as quantitative proteomics and metabolism studies.
This book gives plenty of advice to both pure and applied chemists. This book provides helpful information on rarely considered aspects of isotope dilution. This book is the biggest vol- ume on isotope dilution mass spectrometry to date, and sci- entists of all abilities, whether beginners or experts, will be able to draw from this work. Juris Meija
Book's topic Isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) has become a staple of analytical chemistry. One reason for this is that IDMS enables quantitation of an analyte without too much regard for incomplete extraction or digestion. Unlike the popular, related method of standard addition, which usually relies on extensive analytical response (peak area or signal intensity), isotope dilution uses intensive response: the isotope amount ratio. Although the principle behind isotope dilution is simple and can be explained using the analogy of catch-andrelease fish counting in a pond, the technical and theoretical details of implementing isotope dilution become complex rather quickly. Consequently, isotope dilution is not a onesize- fits-all panacea in analytical chemistry. This book tries to present many of the details that are important for accurate performance of isotope dilution. Contents This book consists of ten chapters. The introductory chapter provides an overview of isotope dilution mass spectrometry, including a brief historical outline of the method. The second chapter is devoted to the basic equations of IDMS, including double IDMS and exact-matching double IDMS. This chapter also provides the equations that extend the isotope dilution to more than two isotopes (that is, one isotope ratio). Chapter 3 discusses online IDMS, which allows isotope-dilution-based quantitation of multiple analytes containing the element of interest as they elute from the chromatographic column. This is a popular method in elemental speciation because it requires only one isotopic standard of an element, rather than one isotopic standard for each substance. Chapter 4 covers the topic on which the authors are recognized experts: the use of multiple isotopically labelled substances for quantitation of dynamic systems. This is the application for which isotope dilution offers the most substantial advantages over traditional methods. A popular example of this approach is the quantitation of Cr(VI) in the presence of Cr(III). It is possible for some of the Cr(III) to convert into Cr(VI) during sample preparation, and, to ascertain the amount of Cr(III) that was not originally present in the sample, one can add isotopic spikes of both Cr(III) and Cr(VI), each enriched in a different isotope of chromium. Chapter 5 deals with the natural isotopic composition of elements and how to use it to calculate the natural isotopic composition of complex substances, and chapter 6 provides guidance on selecting the isotopic spike. Chapters 7 and 8 provide technical discourse on the measurement of isotope ratios in elemental or molecular mass spectrometry. Chapter 9 discusses the traceability of IDMS results, emphasising the function of purity estimations of natural standards. Lastly, chapter 10 provides guidance on the uncertainty evaluation of IDMS results. This chapter discusses different sources of uncertainty, offers guidance on how to minimize these, and provides mathematical tools for combining all individual uncertainty components to estimate the uncertainty of the final result. Comparison with the existing literature Isotope dilution mass spectrometry features as a chapter in virtually all modern analytical chemistry textbooks. However, it is rare to find an entire book devoted to this subject. The closest alternative to this book is the small paperback Guidelines for Achieving High Accuracy in Isotope Dilution Mass Spectrometry by Sargent, Harrington, and Harte, published in 2002 by the Royal Society of Chemistry. However, the scope of this book is much more exhaustive, reflecting the numerous recent developments in the field. Critical assessment This book gives plenty of advice to both pure and applied chemists. However, isotope dilution mass spectrometry has developed substantially over the last few decades, and it is increasingly difficult to cover all aspects of the method. Among the topics almost entirely omitted from this book is the blank correction. In addition: chapter 7 discusses mass-bias correction in mass spectrometry and the fact that most corrections rely on comparisons between the measured isotope ratios and the "theoretical" values provided byIUPAC. However, no further guidance is given as to how these "theoretical" values are obtained in the first place. The discourse on standard atomic weights is, at times, not well researched. For example, the authors voice the opinion that "atomic-weight intervals are useless not only for trade and commerce but also for Chemical Metrology". Such a comment is unfortunate, because it does nothing to improve knowledge. More research by the authors on this topic would most certainly have benefited this book, and would mean readers would not be presented with freshman mistakes whereby atomic weights are expressed in g mol−1, or such comments as "the mol is the reference for the determination of the atomic weights" (the opposite is true; it is the atomic weights which serve as the reference to determine the mole). Summary This book provides helpful information on rarely considered aspects of isotope dilution. The authors thus effectively dispel the notion that isotope dilution is a simplemethod that will always provide accurate results. The few above shortcomings notwithstanding, this book is the biggest volume on isotope dilution mass spectrometry to date, and scientists of all abilities, whether beginners or experts, will be able to draw from this work. Anal Bioanal Chem DOI 10.1007/s00216-014-7662-6
Isotope Dilution Mass Spectrometry (IDMS) is increasingly used in research laboratories and has become an essential tool in routine analysis labs (including environmental and clinical applications). This is the first textbook to present a comprehensive and instructive view of the theory and applications of this growing technique.
The first part of this textbook offers a uniform theoretical background, based both on the authors' experience in organic, speciation and elemental analysis and on the current published literature. In the second part, the comprehensive approach to the many applications of IDMS will ensure this text becomes an essential reference for any analytical laboratory. Emerging fields such as quantitative proteomics and metabolic studies are also discussed. Appendices include example spreadsheets for calculating the isotopic composition of molecules and using the Kragten procedure for determining uncertainties.
Postgraduate students and laboratory staff will find this textbook to be a highly accessible guide to isotope dilution analysis, providing the reader with a sound basis to working with this technique. Experienced researchers will benefit from designing experiments with IDMS methodologies in mind. The authors enjoy a strong reputation in the field of analytical chemistry and the reader will be familiar with their previous research.
This is the first textbook to present a comprehensive and instructive view of the theory and applications of this growing technique.
About the Author
Professor Jose Alonso obtained his PhD in Analytical Chemistry from the University of Oviedo in 1985 and subsequently became a postdoctoral fellow at the University of Plymouth before returning to Oviedo in 1987. For five years he was a scientific officer of the European Commission, based in Karlsruhe and in 1995 returned to Oviedo, where he is now Head of Mass Spectrometry and Full Professor of Analytical Chemistry. Professor Alonso's research has yielded over 140 scientific publications and he is a regular invited speaker at conferences. In the commercial sector Professor Alonso is a founding member of a spin-out company dedicated to the commercialisation of isotopically-labelled compounds. During her PhD and Post-doc research, Dr. Mariella Moldovan has worked with platinum group elements analysis and the determination of their environmental pathways and effects. Her current research interests are focused on the development of analytical methods based on the use of stable enriched isotopes and elemental mass spectrometry. Dr Pablo Rodriguez Gonzalez has carried out his PhD and his postdoc in the field of Isotope dilution analysis for speciation and organic analysis. He is the co-author of about 30 publications in international journals on IDMS using different inorganic and organic mass spectrometric techniques. He has written in collaboration with Prof. Garcia Alonso a tutorial review in 2005 which has been already cited 82 times since its publication in 2005.
Table of Contents
1 Introduction to Isotope Dilution Mass Spectrometry (IDMS);2 IDMS Procedures and Calculation Methods; 3 Online Isotope Dilution Mass Spectrometry; 4 The Use of Multiple Enriched Isotopes for IDMS; 5 The Isotope Composition of Natural-Abundance Elements and Molecules; 6 Selection of Isotopically Enriched Elements and Isotopically Labelled Molecules; 7 The Measurement of the Isotope Composition of the Elements; 8 The Measurement of the Isotope Composition of Molecules by Mass Spectrometry; 9 Traceability in Isotope Dilution Mass Spectrometry; 10 Uncertainty Evaluation in IDMS; Appendix Definition and Explanation of Symbols Used; Subject Index