Synopses & Reviews
Designed to encourage critical thinking about history, this reader uses a carefully selected group of primary sources and analytical essays to allow students to test the interpretations of distinguished historians and draw their own conclusions about the history of American foreign policy. This text serves as an effective educational tool for courses on U.S. foreign policy, recent U.S. history, or 20th Century U.S. history. The Seventh Edition introduces new studies on America's early foreign relations which seek to position the nation's post "9-11" attitudes and behaviors within historical context. Some of the new literature spotlights cultural relations, and the ways in which culturally constructed attitudes about class, gender, race, and national identity have shaped American's perceptions of the world and subsequently its overseas relationships.
About the Author
Dennis Merrill, a professor of history and department chair at the University of Missouri-Kansas City, received his Ph.D. from the University of Connecticut. He is the author of Bread and the Ballot: The United States and India's Economic Development, 1947-1963. The Society for Historians of American Foreign Relations honored him with a Stuart L. Bernath Article Prize, and he has received two Fulbright awards to India. His current research interests focus on U.S.-Third World relations during the Cold War and the history of international tourism. Thomas G. Paterson, professor emeritus of history at the University of Connecticut, graduated from the University of New Hampshire (B.A., 1963) and the University of California, Berkeley (Ph.D., 1968). He is the author of Soviet-American Confrontation (1973), Meeting the Communist Threat (1988), On Every Front (1992), Contesting Castro (1994), America Ascendant (with J. Garry Clifford, 1995), and A People and a Nation (with Mary Beth Norton et al., 2001). Tom is also the editor of Cold War Critics (1971), Kennedy's Quest for Victory (1989), Imperial Surge (with Stephen G. Rabe, 1992), The Origins of the Cold War (with Robert McMahon, 1999), Explaining the History of American Foreign Relations (with Michael J. Hogan, 2004), and Major Problems in American Foreign Relations (with Dennis Merrill, 2010). With Bruce Jentleson, he served as senior editor for the Encyclopedia of American Foreign Relations (1997). A microfilm edition of The United States and Castro's Cuba, 1950s-1970s: The Paterson Collection appeared in 1999. He has served on the editorial boards of the Journal of American History and Diplomatic History. A recipient of a Guggenheim fellowship, he has directed National Endowment for the Humanities Summer Seminars for College Teachers. In 2000 the New England History Teachers Association recognized his excellence in teaching and mentoring with the Kidger Award. Besides visits to many American campuses, Tom has lectured in Canada, China, Colombia, Cuba, New Zealand, Puerto Rico, Russia, and Venezuela. He is a past president of the Society for Historians of American Foreign Relations, which in 2008 honored him with the Laura and Norman Graebner Award for "lifetime achievement" in scholarship, service, and teaching. A native of Oregon, Tom is now informally associated with Southern Oregon University.
Table of Contents
Note: Each chapter concludes with Further Reading. 1. EXPLAINING AMERICAN FOREIGN RELATIONS. Essays. Bradford Perkins • The Unique American Prism. William Appleman Williams • The Open Door Policy: Economic Expansion and the Remaking of Societies. Norman A. Graebner • The Pursuit of Interests and a Balance of Power. Andrew Rotter • The Gendering of Peoples and Nations. Michael L. Krenn • The Power of Race. Walter L. Hixson • Culture, National Identity, and the Myth of America. 2. THE ORIGINS OF AMERICAN FOREIGN POLICY IN THE REVOLUTIONARY ERA. Documents. 1. Governor John Winthrop Envisions a City Upon a Hill, 1630. 2. John Adams of Massachusetts Explains French Interest in American Independence and Cautions Against Alliance, 1775. 3. The Patriot Thomas Paine Demands Severance from the British Empire, " 1776. 4. The Declaration of Independence, 1776. 5. Treaties with France Secure an Alliance, 1778. 6. Treaty of Paris Secures American Independence, 1783. 7. Federalist No. 4: There Is Strength in Union. 8. Foreign Policy Powers in the Constitution, 1789. Essays. Lawrence S. Kaplan • The Treaty of Alliance With France and American Isolationism. Robert Kagan • Revolutionary Internationalists Engage a Harsh World. 3. THE GREAT DEBATE OF THE 1790S. Documents. 1. Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson Defends the Treaty with France, 1793. 2. Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton Urges Voiding the Treaty with France, 1793. 3. Jay's Treaty, 1794. 4. Virginia Senator James Madison Proposes Commercial Restrictions Against Britain, 1795. 5. A Democratic-Republican Society Blasts Jay's Treaty, 1795. 6. Hamilton Defends Jay's Treaty, 1795. 7. President George Washington Cautions Against Factionalism and Permanent Alliances in His Farewell Address, 1796. Essays. John Lamberton Harper • Prudence and Logic: Hamilton and Jay's Treaty. Marie-Jeanne Rossignol • Hamilton, Jay, and the Federalists: Partisan Anglophiles. 4. THE LOUISIANA PURCHASE. Documents. 1. Haitian General Toussaint Louverture Accuses the Jefferson Administration of a Racial Slight, 1801. 2. President Jefferson Assesses the French Threat in New Orleans, 1802. 3. First Consul of France Napoleon Bonaparte Explains the Need to Sell Louisiana to the United States, 1803. 4. American Minister to France Robert R. Livingston Recounts the Paris Negotiations, 1803. 5. Federalist Hamilton Debunks Jefferson's Diplomacy, 1803. 6. Jefferson Instructs Captain Meriwether Lewis on Exploration, 1803. Essays. Robert W. Tucker and David C. Hendrickson • Jefferson's Risky Diplomacy of Watching and Waiting. Joseph J. Ellis • Patience, Deft Diplomacy, and Continental Empire. 5. THE WAR OF 1812. Documents. 1. Secretary of State Madison Protests British Impressment of Americans from the Chesapeake, 1807. 2. The Embargo Act Forbids U.S. Exports, 1807. 3. Massachusetts Federalist Josiah Quincy Denounces Calls for War, 1809. 4. The Non-Intercourse Act Replaces the Embargo Act, 1809. 5. Shawnee Chief Tecumseh Condemns U.S. Land Grabs and Plays the British Card, 1810. 6. Kentucky Republican Henry Clay Articulates U.S. Grievances Against Britain, 1811. 7. President Madison Urges Congress to Declare War on Great Britain, 1812. 8. Former President Jefferson Predicts the Easy Conquest of Canada, 1812. Essays. Garry Wills • Economic Coercion and the Conquest of Canada: Madison's Failed Diplomacy. Walter L. Hixson • The Patriotic War. 6. THE MONROE DOCTRINE. Documents. 1. Secretary of State John Quincy Adams Warns Against the Search for "Monsters to Destroy," 1821. 2. British Foreign Secretary George Canning Proposes a Joint Declaration, 1823. 3. Jefferson Advises President James Monroe to Cooperate with Britain, 1823. 4. Adams Argues Against a Joint Anglo-American Declaration in Cabinet Meeting of November 7, 1823. 5. The Monroe Doctrine Declares the Western Hemisphere Closed to European Intervention, 1823. 6. Colombia Requests an Explanation of U.S. Intentions, 1824. 7. Representative William L. Brent Plays the Race (and Cuban) Card, 1826. 8. Juan Bautista Alberdi of Argentina Warns Against the Threat of "Monroism" to the Independence of Spanish America, n.d. Essays. James E. Lewis Jr. • In Defense of the Nation and Hemispheric Republicanism. Piero Gleijeses • Expansionist Ambition, Not Republican Sympathies. Ernest R. May • Domestic Politics and Personal Ambitions. 7. WESTWARD EXPANSION AND INDIAN REMOVAL. Documents. 1. Representative Edward Everett Denounces Removal, 1830. 2. The Indian Removal Act Authorizes Transfer of East Tribes to the West, 1830. 3. The Cherokee Nation Protests the Removal Policy, 1830. 4. President Andrew Jackson Defends Removal, 1830. 5. Cherokee Nation v. the State of Georgia: The Supreme Court Refuses Jurisdiction Over Indian Affairs, 1831. 6. Cherokee Chief John Ross Denounces U.S. Removal Policy, 1836. Essays. Theda Perdue • The Origins of Removal and the Fate of the Southeastern Indians. Stuart Banner • Debating the Legality and Wisdom of Indian Removal. 8. MANIFEST DESTINY, TEXAS, AND THE WAR WITH MEXICO. Documents. 1. Sam Houston's Battle Cry for Texan Independence, 1835. 2. General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna Defends Mexican Sovereignty over Texas, 1837. 3. Democratic Publicist John L. O'Sullivan Proclaims America's Manifest Destiny, 1839. 4. President James K. Polk Lays Claim to Texas and Oregon, 1845. 5. Polk Asks Congress to Declare War on Mexico, 1846. 6. The Wilmot Proviso Raises the Issue of Slavery in the Newly Acquired Territories, 1846. 7. Massachusetts Senator Daniel Webster Protests the War with Mexico and the Admission of New States to the Union, 1848. 8. Mexican Patriots Condemn U.S. Aggression, 1850. Essays. Anders Stephanson • The Ideology and Spirit of Manifest Destiny. Thomas R. Hietala • Empire By Design, Not Destiny. 9. EXPANSION TO THE PACIFIC AND ASIA. Documents. 1. American Merchants in Canton Plead for Protection During the Opium Crisis, 1839. . Representative Caleb Cushing: "God Forbid Cooperating with the British," 1840. 3. A Chinese Official Recommends Pitting American Barbarians Against British Barbarians, 1841. 4. Secretary of State Webster Instructs Caleb Cushing on Negotiating with China, 1843. 5. Webster Warns European Powers Away from Hawai'i, 1851. 6. Instructions to Commodore Matthew C. Perry for His Expedition to Japan, 1852. 7. Ii Naosuke, Feudal Lord of Hikone, Advocates Accommodation with the United States, 1853. 8. Tokugawa Nariaki, Feudal Lord of Mito, Argues Against Peace, 1853. Essays. McCabe Kelliher • Trade, Anglo-American Rivalry, and the Origins of U.S. China Policy. Walter LaFeber • The Origins of the U.S.-Japanese Clash. 10. THE DIPLOMACY OF THE CIVIL WAR. Documents. 1. South Carolina Senator James H. Hammond Thunders: "Cotton is King," 1858. 2. Secretary of State Willliam H. Seward Presents "Some Thoughts for the President's Consideration," 1861. 3. President Abraham Lincoln Proclaims a Blockade, 1861. 4. Seward Warns the British, 1861. 5. Senator Charles Sumner Taunts John Bull Over the Trent Affair, 1862. 6. Seward Warns Europe Against Intervention in Mexico, 1862. 7. The Emancipation Proclamation, 1862-1863. 8. Ambassador Charles Francis Adams Protests the Iron Clads, 1863. Essays. James M. McPherson • British Realpolitik Trumps "King Cotton". Howard Jones • British Intervention: A Very Close Call. 11. BECOMING A WORLD POWER IN THE LATE NINETEENTH CENTURY Documents. 1. Future Secretary of State William H. Seward Dreams of Hemispheric Empire, 1860. 2. President Ulysses S. Grant Urges Annexation of the Dominican Republic, 1870. 3. Congress Calls for a Pan American Conference, 1888. 4. Captain Alfred T. Mahan Advocates a Naval Build-Up, 1890. 5. Queen Liliuokalani Protests U.S. Intervention in Hawai'i, 1893, 1897. 6. Secretary of State Richard Olney Trumpets U.S. Hegemony During the Venezuela Crisis, 1895. 7. Senator Albert J. Beveridge Summons America to Its Imperial Mission, 1898. Essays. Michael H. Hunt • Economic Primacy , Righteous Nationalism, and an Activist State. Robert Kagan • The Civil War and the Creed of Progress. Fareed Zakaria • State-Centered Realism: How a Weak U.S. Government Inhibited World Power. 12. THE SPANISH-AMERICAN-CUBAN-FILIPINO WAR. Documents. 1. Cuban Nationalist Jose Marti Cautions Against Annexation to the United States, 1895. 2. Spanish Minister Enrique Dupuy de Lôme Criticizes President William McKinley, 1897. 3. Senator Redfield Proctor Condemns Spain's Reconcentrado Policy, 1898. 4. "Peace - But Quit That": Uncle Sam Defends Cuba's Feminine Virtue, 1898. 5. "Another Old Woman Tries to Sweep Back the Sea": Critics Lampoon McKinley as Indecisive and Unmanly, 1898. 6. McKinley Asks Congress to Authorize War, 1898. 7. The Teller Amendment Disavows the U.S. Annexation of Cuba, 1898. 8. The Platt Amendment Restricts Cuba's Independence, 1903. Essays. Walter LaFeber • Preserving the American System. Kristin L. Hoganson • Manhood, Chivalry, and McKinley's Reluctant Decision for War. Louis A. Perez, Jr. • Derailing Cuban Nationalism and Asserting U.S. Hegemony. 13. EMPIRE AND AMBITION IN ASIA: CHINA AND THE PHILIPPINES. Documents. 1. Emilio Aguinaldo Rallies the Philippine People to Arms, 1899. 2. American Anti-Imperialist League Platform, 1899. 3. President McKinley Preaches His Imperial Gospel, 1899. 4. The Open Door Notes Call for Equal Trade Opportunity and Chinese Independence, 1899-1900. 5. The Boxers Lash out at Christian Missionaries and Converts, 1900. 6. Corporal Daniel J. Evans Describes the "Water Cure," 1902. 7. Major Cornelias Gardner Recalls the Horrors of War, 1902. Essays. Michael H. Hunt • The Open Door Constituency's Pressure for U.S. Activism in China. Paul A. Kramer • America's Race War in the Philippines. Stanley Karnow • The Policy of Attraction: Promoting Philippine Political, Economic, and Cultural Dependency. 14. THEODORE ROOSEVELT, THE BIG STICK, AND U.S. HEGEMONY IN THE CARIBBEAN. Documents. 1. New York Governor Theodore Roosevelt Preaches the Manly Virtues of Overseas Expansion, 1899. 2. Argentine Foreign Minister Luis Drago Condemns the Collection of Debts by Force, 1902. 3. The Panama Canal Treaty Grants the United States a Zone of Occupation, 1903. 4. President Rafael Reyes Enumerates Colombia's Grievances Against the United States, 1904. 5. The Roosevelt Corollary Asserts U.S. Police Power Over the Western Hemisphere, 1904. 6. Ruben Dario's "To Roosevelt," 1905. Essays. Mark T. Gilderhus • Bravado and Bluster: TR's Sphere of Influence in the Caribbean. Emily S. Rosenberg • TR's Civilizing Mission: Race, Gender, and Dollar Diplomacy. Richard H. Collin • TR 's Measured Response to Political Instability and European Encroachment. 15. WOODROW WILSON, THE FIRST WORLD WAR, AND THE LEAGUE FIGHT. Documents. 1. The First Lusitania Note Requests Germany to Halt Submarine Warfare, 1915. 2. President Woodrow Wilson Asks Congress to Declare War Against Germany, 1917. 3. Senator Robert M. La Follette Voices His Dissent, 1917. 4. Wilson Proclaims U.S. War Aims: The Fourteen Points, 1918. 5. Articles 10 through 16 of the League of Nations Covenant, 1919. 6. Wilson Defends the Peace Treaty and League, 1919. 7. Senator Henry Cabot Lodge Proposes Reservations to the League Covenant, 1919. 8. Tsi C. Wang Recalls the Shandong Question and China's May Fourth Movement, 1927. Essays. Thomas J. Knock • From Peace to War: Progressive Internationalists Confront the Forces of Reaction. Robert W. Tucker • A Passionate Visionary Stumbles Into War. Erez Manela • Wilsonianism and Anticolonial Nationalism: A Dream Deferred.