This volume offers an examination of the nation's urban development and reflects the city's pivotal role in the unfolding of American history. The Second Edition has been significantly revised to include more than 75% new content and a greater emphasis on suburbanization and historically marginalized groups. Chapters included in this edition focus on the lower classes and class relations and conditions; the evolution of technology; race relations and redevelopment in the postwar era; and significant changes in urbanization. In order to address the current urban climate, the final chapter focuses on violence and the search for security in a post-September 11th America.
Howard P. Chudacoff, the George L. Littlefield Professor of American History and Professor of Urban Studies at Brown University, was born in Omaha, Nebraska. He earned his A.B. (1965) and Ph.D. (1969) from the University of Chicago. He has written MOBILE AMERICANS (1972), HOW OLD ARE YOU (1989), THE AGE OF THE BACHELOR (1999), THE EVOLUTION OF AMERICAN URBAN SOCIETY (with Judith Smith, 2004), and CHILDREN AT PLAY: AN AMERICAN HISTORY (2007). He has also co-edited, with Peter Baldwin, MAJOR PROBLEMS IN AMERICAN URBAN HISTORY (2004). His articles have appeared in such journals as the JOURNAL OF FAMILY HISTORY, REVIEWS IN AMERICAN HISTORY, and JOURNAL OF AMERICAN HISTORY. At Brown University, Howard has co-chaired the American Civilization Program, chaired the Department of History, and serves as Brown's faculty representative to the NCAA. He has also served on the board of directors of the Urban History Association. The National Endowment for the Humanities, Ford Foundation, and Rockefeller Foundation have given him awards to advance his scholarship.
Note: Each chapter concludes with Further Reading. 1. Interpreting Urban and Suburban History ESSAYS Samuel P. Hays, From the History of the City to the History of the Urbanized Society Michael Pollan, The Triumph of Burbopolis Timothy J. Gilfoyle, The New Paradigms of Urban History 2. Colonial Seaports and Trading Posts, 1600-1770 DOCUMENTS 1. Edward Johnson Tells How God and Trade Made New England Prosper, 1654 2. The Rev. Hugh Jones Describes Economic Life and Settlement in Early Maryland, 1699 3. Philadelphia, 1702 4. William Moraley, an Indentured Servant, Enjoys a Moment of Freedom in Philadelphia, 1729 5. A Record of Charleston's Exports, 1735-1736 6. Peter Kalm Considers Trade in 1740s New York 7. Elizabeth Sandwith, a Wealthy Young Philadelphian, Describes Her Work, 1758-1760 8. Auguste Chouteau Remembers the Founding of St. Louis, 1763 9. A Philadelphian Worries About Competition from Baltimore, 1767 ESSAYS Gary B. Nash, The Web of Seaport Life, 1600-1700 Karin Wulf, Independent Women in Colonial Philadelphia Jay Gitlin, Constructing the House of Chouteau 3. The "Lower Sort" in Early American Cities, 1740-1825 DOCUMENTS 1. Dr. Alexander Hamilton Interacts with His Peers and Social Inferiors in Philadelphia, 1744 2. Josiah Quincy, Jr., Laments Revolutionary Mob Action in Boston, 1765 3. A White Observer Deplores the Celebration of Pinkster in Albany, 1803 4. William Otter Brags About His Exploits as a Young Hoodlum in New York, 1806-1807 5. Estwick Evans Describes the Exotic but Immoral City of New Orleans, 1818 6. A Charleston African American Testifies About His Involvement in the Denmark Vesey Conspiracy, 1822 ESSAYS Peter Thompson, Managing Social Conflict in Philadelphia's Taverns Bradford Verter, Interracial Festivity and Power in Albany, New York 4. Economic Growth and Social Change, 1825-1860 DOCUMENTS 1. David Johnson Recalls His Apprenticeship in Lynn, Massachusetts, ca. 1830 2. Harriet Martineau Visits Chicago in Its Infancy, 1836 3. A Rochester Workingman Debates an Employer, 1840 4. Mary Paul Writes Home About Her Lowell Textile-Mill Experience, 1845-1846 5. Benjamin Moore Norman Predicts a Glorious Future for New Orleans, 1845 6. Bayard Taylor Observes San Francisco During the Gold Rush, 1849 7. An Advertisement Promotes the "City of Nininger," Late 1850s ESSAYS William Cronon, Booster Dreams Susan E. Hirsch, Industrialization in Newark 5. Dealing with Sickness and Sanitation, 1830-1900 DOCUMENTS 1. John Pintard Writes to His Daughter Eliza About the Cholera Epidemic of 1832 2. Bill of Mortality for the City of Boston, 1835 3. A New Orleans Newspaper Warns That Filthy Streets Will Cause Disease, 1853 4. Dr. Ezra R. Pulling Reports Unhealthy Conditions Among New York's Poor, ca. 1860 5. B. E. Lloyd Sensationalizes Health Conditions in San Francisco's Chinatown, 1876 6. George E. Waring, Jr., Complains That Memphis Is Still Unsanitary, 1882 7. A City Street Before and After Sanitation Reform ESSAYS Ari Kelman, The Necropolis of the South Nayan Shah, White Fears and the Racialization of Disease in San Francisco 6. Class Relations in the Industrial Metropolis, 1850-1900 DOCUMENTS 1. James W. Gerard Pleads for Better Police Protection in New York, 1853 2. Charles Loring Brace Boasts of His "Remedy for Juvenile Pauperism," 1872 3. Troops Fire on Rioters in Baltimore, 1877 4. Richard T. Ely Weighs the Benefits and Disadvantages of Life in a Company Town, 1885 5. Chicago Anarchists Call for Workers to Protest Police Brutality, 1886 6. Jacob Riis Warns of the Social Dangers Posed by Bad Housing, 1890 7. Jane Addams Explains the Need for Settlement Houses, 1892 8. Twenty-Five Largest American Cities, 1900 (map and population table) ESSAYS Christine Stansell, Women, Children, and the Uses of the Streets Kenneth T. Jackson, The Suburban Home as the Answer to Middle-Class Hopes and Fears 7. Great Migrations, 1870-1930 DOCUMENTS 1. Immigrants Tell About Their Experiences in America, ca. 1900: The Story of a Lithuanian; The Story of a Polish Sweatshop Girl; The Story of an Italian Bootblack 2. Henry (Yoshitaka) Kiyama Depicts His First Job in San Francisco, ca. 1904 3. Immigrants in American Cities, 1910 4. Growth of Black Urban Communities, 1910-1930 5. Southern African Americans Discuss the Advantages of Moving to Northern Cities, 1917 6. Southern African Americans Tell Why They Came to Chicago, 1922 ESSAYS John Bodnar, Roger Simon, and Michael P. Weber, Immigrant Newcomers in Turn-of-the-Century Pittsburgh James R. Grossman, Southern Blacks' Migration to Chicago in the Early Twentieth Century 8. Changing Technology and Urban Space, 1870-1930 DOCUMENTS 1. William Gray Brooks Sees Boston Disrupted by a Horse Disease, 1872 2. Julian Ralph Marvels at the Electricity and Skyscrapers in High-Speed Chicago, 1892 3. New York Pedestrians Confront Reckless Drivers, 1902 4. Horses, Wagons, and Automobiles, St. Louis, 1902-1920 5. The Diary of a Hartford Motorist, 1911 6. John Ihlder, a City Planner, Considers the Effects of the Automobile, 1924 ESSAYS Daniel Bluestone, Uniting Commerce and Culture in the Early Skyscraper Peter C. Baldwin, Automobile Versus Pedestrian in Hartford 9. Bosses, Reformers, and Urban Professionals, 1870-1930 DOCUMENTS 1. Richard Croker Defends Tammany Hall, 1892 2. James Bryce Deplores Boss Politics, 1895 3. Jane Addams Explains "Why the Ward Boss Rules," 1898 4. Martha A. B. Conine Tells How Denver Women Entered Local Politics, 1898 5. Big Tim Sullivan Hosts His Annual Picnic, 1903 ESSAYS Daniel Czitrom, The Rise of Big Tim Sullivan Jon C. Teaford, A Reappraisal of Bosses and Reformers in City Government 10. Neighborhood and Community, 1880-1945 DOCUMENTS 1. Dong Tong, a Chinese American, Confronts Racial Zoning in Baltimore, 1911 2. A Gay Professor Describes Gay Community Life in Denver and Other Cities, ca. 1910 3. Graham Romeyn Taylor Analyzes Community Building in Industrial Suburbs, 1915 4. J. C. Nichols, a Kansas City Developer, Touts the Community Features of Suburbs, 1924 5. Harvey Warren Zorbaugh Denies the Existence of Normal Community Life in a Furnished Room District of Chicago, 1929 6. An African American Neighborhood in Atlanta, Georgia, 1936 7. St. Clair Drake and Horace R. Cayton Celebrate the Vitality of Chicago's Bronzeville, 1945 ESSAYS Joseph C. Bigott, Polish Settlement in West Hammond, Illinois, 1890-1911 James R. Barrett, Community Life in Chicago's Packingtown, 1894-1922 11. Leisure Time and Popular Culture, 1890-1945 DOCUMENTS 1. Reformer Belle Israels Moskowitz Tells How Working Girls Want to Have Fun, 1909 2. Collier's Magazine Tells How City Children Adapted Baseball, 1911 3. The Rev. John J. Phelan Assesses Movies in Toledo, Ohio, 1919 4. Elisha Silva Describes Her Job in a Los Angeles Dance Hall, 1920s 5. Mexican Ballads Justify and Condemn Immigration, 1924 6. Bachelors Explain Why They Attend Taxi-Dance Halls, ca. 1930 ESSAYS Howard P. Chudacoff, The Institutional World of Urban Bachelors George J. Sánchez, Familiar Sounds of Change in Mexican Los Angeles 12. Race and Redevelopment, 1945-1975 DOCUMENTS 1. Warren J. Vinton, a Public Housing Administrator, Sees a Rosy Future for Redevelopment, 1949 2. A Real Estate Speculator Explains the Fine Art of Blockbusting, 1962 3. E. Gomillia and Lorene Gomillia Plead for Their Neighborhood to Be Spared from Urban Renewal, 1965 4. Charles Haar, a Presidential Advisor, Tries to Predict America's Urban Future, 1967 5. Rodolfo "Corky" Gonzales Presents a Plan for Improving Latino Neighborhoods, 1968 6. Construction and Demolition of the Pruitt-Igoe Housing Project, St. Louis, Missouri ESSAYS Arnold R. Hirsch, From the First Ghetto to the Second Ghetto Thomas H. O'Connor, Urban Renewal in Boston: Successes and Controversies 13. Sprawl, 1945 to the Present DOCUMENTS 1. Time Magazine Admires the Construction of Levittown, New York, 1950 2. Lewis Mumford Attacks Mass Suburbia, 1961 3. Jean Gottman Proclaims the Emergence of an East Coast Megalopolis, 1961 4. Joel Garreau Discerns the Spread of Edge Cities, 1991 5. James Howard Kunstler Criticizes the Automobile Suburb, 1993 ESSAYS Adam W. Rome, The Environmental Costs of Postwar Sprawl Robert Bruegmann, The Flaws of Anti-Sprawl Arguments 14. The Shift to a Postindustrial City, 1945 to the Present DOCUMENTS 1. Chicago Steelworkers Endure Unemployment, ca. 1985 2. Marc Cooper Finds a "email@example.com," 1996 3. David Barringer Exposes the Limited Benefits of "Carnival Cities," 1997 4. Twenty-Five Largest American Cities, 2000 (map and population table) ESSAYS Thomas J. Sugrue, The Deindustrialization of Detroit Janet L. Abu-Lughod, New Immigrants in a Changing Los Angeles 15. Violence and the Search for Security, 1980 to the Present DOCUMENTS 1. The Rise and Decline of Murder in New York, 1964-2002 2. Edward J. Blakely and Mary Gail Snyder Describe the Trend Toward Gated Communities, 1997 3. William H. Lucy Debunks the Myth of "Exurban" Safety, 2000 4. Andres Duany Applauds Gentrification, 2001 5. Molly Smithsimon Warns of the Rise of Urban Surveillance, 2003 ESSAYS Norman Podhoretz, Tolerating Chaos and Restoring Order Peter Marcuse, Urban Form and Globalization After September 11