Synopses & Reviews
The fascinating collection of essays and documents in these volumes provides a comprehensive view of the culture of the American South as well as its political, social, and economic history. The compelling documents are grouped with important secondary sources, accompanied by chapter introductions, selection headnotes, and suggested readings.
About the Author
Paul Escott is Reynolds Professor of History at Wake Forest University. His academic degrees are from Harvard College and Duke University. Among his books are AFTER SECESSION: JEFFERSON DAVIS AND THE FAILURE OF CONFEDERATE NATIONALISM, SLAVERY REMEMBERED: A RECORD OF TWENTIETH-CENTURY SLAVE NARRATIVES, MANY EXCELLENT PEOPLE: POWER AND PRIVILEGE IN NORTH CAROLINA, 1850-1900, MILITARY NECESSITY: CIVIL-MILITARY RELATIONS IN THE CONFEDERACY, "WHAT SHALL WE DO WITH THE NEGRO?": LINCOLN, WHITE RACISM, AND CIVIL WAR AMERICA, and THE CONFEDERACY: THE SLAVEHOLDERS' FAILED VENTURE. David Goldfield is the Robert Lee Bailey Professor of History at the University of North Carolina, Charlotte. A native of Memphis, he grew up in Brooklyn, New York, and attended the University of Maryland. He is the author or editor of fifteen books mostly dealing with the history of the American South, two of which received the Mayflower Award for Non-Fiction. His most recent book is AMERICA AFLAME: HOW THE CIVIL WAR CREATED A NATION (Bloomsbury Press, 2011). Sally G. McMillen, the Mary Reynolds Babcock Professor of History at Davidson College, earned her Ph.D. from Duke University. Previous publications include MOTHERHOOD IN THE OLD SOUTH (1990), SOUTHERN WOMEN: BLACK AND WHITE IN THE OLD SOUTH (1991), TO RAISE UP THE SOUTH: SUNDAY SCHOOLS IN BLACK AND WHITE CHURCHES, 1865-1915 (2001), SENECA FALLS AND THE ORIGINS OF THE WOMEN'S RIGHTS MOVEMENT (2008) as well as several articles in the Journal of Southern History and the Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences. She is currently working on a biography of Lucy Stone. Elizabeth Hayes Turner, professor of history at the University of North Texas, earned her Ph.D. from Rice University. She is the author of WOMEN, CULTURE, AND COMMUNITY: RELIGION AND REFORM IN GALVESTON, 1880-1920 (1997); WOMEN AND GENDER IN THE NEW SOUTH, 1865-1945 (2009); co-author of GALVESTON AND THE 1900 STORM: CATASTROPHE AND CATALYST (2000); and co-editor of five books, including LONE STAR PASTS: MEMORY AND HISTORY IN TEXAS (2005). She is the author of several articles in edited anthologies and the Southern Literary Journal and is currently completing a book JUNETEENTH: THE EVOLUTION OF AN EMANCIPATION CELEBRATION. Thomas G. Paterson, professor emeritus of history at the University of Connecticut, graduated from the University of New Hampshire (B.A., 1963) and the University of California, Berkeley (Ph.D., 1968). He is the author of Soviet-American Confrontation (1973), Meeting the Communist Threat (1988), On Every Front (1992), Contesting Castro (1994), America Ascendant (with J. Garry Clifford, 1995), and A People and a Nation (with Mary Beth Norton et al., 2001). Tom is also the editor of Cold War Critics (1971), Kennedy's Quest for Victory (1989), Imperial Surge (with Stephen G. Rabe, 1992), The Origins of the Cold War (with Robert McMahon, 1999), Explaining the History of American Foreign Relations (with Michael J. Hogan, 2004), and Major Problems in American Foreign Relations (with Dennis Merrill, 2010). With Bruce Jentleson, he served as senior editor for the Encyclopedia of American Foreign Relations (1997). A microfilm edition of The United States and Castro's Cuba, 1950s-1970s: The Paterson Collection appeared in 1999. He has served on the editorial boards of the Journal of American History and Diplomatic History. A recipient of a Guggenheim fellowship, he has directed National Endowment for the Humanities Summer Seminars for College Teachers. In 2000 the New England History Teachers Association recognized his excellence in teaching and mentoring with the Kidger Award. Besides visits to many American campuses, Tom has lectured in Canada, China, Colombia, Cuba, New Zealand, Puerto Rico, Russia, and Venezuela. He is a past president of the Society for Historians of American Foreign Relations, which in 2008 honored him with the Laura and Norman Graebner Award for "lifetime achievement" in scholarship, service, and teaching. A native of Oregon, Tom is now informally associated with Southern Oregon University.
Table of Contents
Note: Each chapter concludes with Further Reading. 1. THE HISTORIANS? SOUTH? Essays. W. J. Cash, The Continuity of Southern History. C. Vann Woodward, The Search for Southern Identity. John B. Boles, The Difficulty of Consensus on the South. John Shelton Reed, The Three Souths. 2. RECONSTRUCTING THE SOUTH. Documents. 1. Mississippi Legislates Black Codes, 1865. 2. The Nation Ratifies Three Reconstruction Amendments: 13 (1865), 14 (1868), and 15 (1870). 3. J.R. Johnson Preaches on Marriage Covenants and Legal Rights, 1866. 4. Congress Passes the Military Reconstruction Act, 1867. 5. The Northern Press Views the Enfranchisement of Freedmen, 1867: ?We Accept the Situation? by Thomas Nast; ?A Jury of Blacks and Whites? by James E. Taylor; ?The First Vote? by A. R. Waud. 6. A Southern Newspaper Denounces Reconstruction, 1869. 7. Congress Hears Testimony on the Ku Klux Klan, 1871. Essays. Eric Foner, Black Activism and the Rise of the Ku Klux Klan. Stephen Budiansky, The Hamburg Massacre, July 1876. 3. LAND AND LABOR IN THE NEW SOUTH. Documents. 1. William Grimes Writes a Sharecropping Contract, 1882. 2. Alonzo T. Mial and A. Robert Medlin Sign a Crop Lien, 1876. 3. Nate Shaw Recounts His Story of Farming in Alabama (c. 1910), 1971. 4. William Alexander Percy Views Sharecropping, 1941. 5. William A. Owens Describes Tenant Farm Life in 1906. 6. Tenants and Farmers Assess the New South, 1887-1889. Essays. Jonathan M. Wiener, Bound Labor in Southern Agriculture. Sharon Ann Holt, Freedpeople Working for Themselves. 4. MILLS, WORKERS, AND THE MYTH OF A NEW SOUTH. Documents. 1. Henry W. Grady Boasts About the New South, 1886, 1889. 2. Broadus Mitchell Explains the Myth of the ?Cotton Mill Campaign,? 1921. 3. Mill Workers Comment on the New South, 1887, 1889. 4. A Black Entrepreneur Builds a Cotton Mill, 1896. 5 Lewis Hine Photographs Children Working in the Mills, 1908, 1909. 6. Bertha Miller Recalls Her Days as a Cotton Mill Girl (1915), 1984. 7. Map of the Piedmont Textile Mills, 1931. Essays. C. Vann Woodward, The Rise of Southern Industry. Jacquelyn Dowd Hall, Robert Korstad, and James L. Leloudis II, The Lives and Labors. of the Cotton-Mill People. Bryant Simon, Mills, Workers, and the Myth of a New South. 5. THE SOUTHERN POPULIST MOVEMENT. Documents. 1. Texas Alliance Women Write to the Southern Mercury, 1888. 2. Farmers Describe the Crisis, 1890s. 3 Farmers Create the Ocala Platform, 1890. 4 Tom Watson Devises a Strategy for Biracial Cooperation, 1892. 5. Populists ?Got ?em on the Run,? 1894. 6. A Populist Speaker Responds, 1898. Essays. Edward Ayers, Alliances and Populists. Charles Postel, Populists and the Shaping of a New Racial Order. 6. THE INTIMIDATION EFFECT: DISENFRANCHISEMENT, SEGREGATION, AND VIOLENCE. Documents. 1. Lynching in the United States, 1882-1930. 2. Ida B. Wells Reports the Horrors of Lynching in the South, 1892. 3. Literacy Test and Poll Tax in North Carolina, 1899. 4. Black Leaders Fight Disfranchisement, 1895. 5. Democrats Fight Back: The White-Supremacy Campaign, 1898: ?The Duty of White Men Today?; ?The Fusion Candidate for the Senate in Edgecombe County?; ?More Negro Scoundrelism?; ?The Vampire That Hovers Over North Carolina.? 6. Mark Twain Writes ?The United States of Lyncherdom,? 1901. 7. Walter White Remembers the Atlanta Race Riot, 1906. 8. Alabama Continues Its Literacy Test until 1965. Essays. Steven Hahn, Black Political Struggles. Leon Litwack, Trouble in Mind. 7. SOUTHERN RELIGION. Documents. 1. Southerners Cherish Two Hymns: ?Steal Away to Jesus,? A Negro Spiritual, N.D.; ?When the Roll Is Called Up Yonder,? 1901. 2. W. E. B. Du Bois Reflects on the Faith of the Fathers, 1903. 3. William Owens Remembers a Revival and Baptism in Texas, c. 1910. 4. Crisis Magazine Presents the Image of Jesus Christ in Georgia, 1911. 5. Rabbi Emmanuel Sternheim Explains the Mission of the Church, 1914. 6. Lillian Smith Writes about God and Guilt, 1949. Essays. Paul Harvey, Redeeming the South. Donald G. Matthews, The Southern Rite of Human Sacrifice. Mark Noll, The Churches, ?Redemption,? and Jim Crow. 8. SOUTHERN MEMORY AND HISTORY. Documents. 1. Southerners Remember the Past, 1890: ?Juneteenth Celebration in San Antonio, 1890?; ?Robert E. Lee Monument, Richmond, VA, 1890?. 2. Confederate General Jubal Early Memorializes the Lost Cause, 1894. 3. United Daughters of the Confederacy Prepare a Catechism for Children, 1912. 4. The U.D.C. Raises a Monument to the Confederacy, Depicting a Soldier and Mammy in Arlington Cemetery, 1914. 5. Mammy Cartoon, 1923. 6. Katherine Du Pre Lumpkin Recounts her Childhood with the Lost Cause, 1946. Essays. David Blight, The Lost Cause and Causes Not Lost. W. Fitzhugh Brundage, Celebrating Black Memory in the Postbellum South. Micki McElya, The National Mammy Monument Controversy of the 1920s. 9. THE PROGRESSIVE SOUTH IN THE AGE OF JIM CROW. Documents. 1. Booker T. Washington Gives the Atlanta Compromise Speech, 1895. 2. W. E. B. Du Bois Denounces Washington?s Accommodationist Policies, 1903. 3. Mamie Garvin Fields Remembers When Mary Church Terrell Spoke on the Role of Modern Woman, c. 1916. 4. Charles W. Dabney Proposes Change for the Public Schools in the South, 1901. 5. Edgar Gardner Murphy Denounces Child Labor in Alabama, 1901. 6. Hoke Smith?s Gubernatorial Address Touches on Education, 1907. 7. The Southern Sociological Congress Creates an Agenda for Reforming the South, 1914. 8. Antisuffragists Raise the Race Issue, c. 1915. 9. Annie Webb Blanton Runs for State Office, 1918. 10. Map Shows Change in Voter Turnout after Suffrage, 1920. Essays. William Link, The Paradox of Southern Progressivism. Lorraine Schuyler, Now You Smell the Perfume: Women Voters in the South. 10. IN SEARCH OF THE MODERN SOUTH. Documents. 1. H. L. Mencken Blasts the South as ?The Sahara of the Bozart,? 1917. 2. The Ku Klux Klan Initiates New Members, 1915. 3. The Reverend Amzi Clarence Dixon Preaches on the Evils of Evolution, 1922. 4. Defense Attorney Clarence Darrow Interrogates Prosecutor William Jennings Bryan in the Scopes Trial, 1925. 5. Dr. William. L. Poteat Criticizes Fundamentalism, 1925. 6. John Crowe Ransom Takes a Stand for the Agrarian Way of Life, 1930. 7. Richard Wright Describes Jim Crow Etiquette, 1945. Essays. James C. Cobb, The Southern Renaissance and the Revolt Against the New South Creed. Nancy Maclean, Mobilizing the Invisible Army. Willard B. Gatewood, Jr., After Scopes: Evolution in the South. 11. TURNING POINTS? THE NEW DEAL TO POST-WORLD WAR II. Documents. 1. Florida Women Desperate for Help Turn to the Government in Letters from the Depression, 1931, 1933, 1934: Mrs. Annie Esser Bartenfels (Miami) to Carlton, 21 April 1931; Miss Lola Nowling (DeFuniak Springs) to Sholtz, 28 January 1933; Mrs. E. C. Scott (Lee) to Sholtz, 28 November 1933; Mrs. Virginia Clements (Jacksonville) to ER, 7 January 1934. 2. Huey Long Wants to Make ?Every Man a King,? 1933. 3. Dorothea Lange Photographs the Depression, 1936: ?People living in miserable poverty, Elm Grove, Oklahoma County, Oklahoma?; ?Plantation Overseer, Mississippi Delta, Near Clarksdale, Mississippi.? 4. The President?s Council Reports on Southern Economic Conditions, 1938. 5. Virginia Foster Durr Describes the Southern Conference for Human Welfare and the Campaign to End the Poll Tax, 1938. 6. The Fourth Biennial Meeting, Southern Conference for Human Welfare Takes Place in New Orleans, November 1946. 7. Margaret J. Hagood Recounts the Life of a Tenant Child, 1939. 8. Gordon B. Hancock Gives his Perspective on ?What the Negro Wants,? 1944. Essays. Anthony Badger, How Did the New Deal Change the South? Patricia Sullivan, Challenge to the Solid South, 1933-1938. James C. Cobb, The Impact of World War II on the American South. 12. RACE RELATIONS AND FREEDOM STRUGGLES. Documents. 1. Melton McLaurin Recalls His ?Separate Past? in Wade, North Carolina, 1953. 2. Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas, 1954. 3. White Southerners Refute Brown v. Board of Education and Write Their Own Southern Manifesto, 1956. 4. Virgil Blossom Finds Extremists Beat a Path to Little Rock, 1957. 5. The Little Rock Nine and Daisy Bates Pose in Mrs. Bates? Living Room, c. 1957. 6. Melba Patillo Beals Reflects on ?Integration? at Central High, 1958. 7. Alabama Clergy Write an Open Appeal to End the Demonstrations, 1963. 8. Martin Luther King Responds to Alabama Clergy with ?Letter from Birmingham Jail,? 1963. 9. Anne Moody Recalls the Sit-In Movement in Jackson, Mississippi, 1963. 10. John Salter, Joan Trumpauer, and Anne Moody Sit-In at the Woolworth?s in Jackson, 1963. 11. President Lyndon Johnson Gives the Commencement Address to Howard University Graduates, ?To Fulfill These Rights,? 1965. 12. Results of the 1965 Voting Rights Act, 1987. Essays. Elizabeth Jacoway, Torments Behind Closed Doors. John Dittmer, The Transformation of the Mississippi Movement, 1964-1968. 13. THE RECENT SOUTH AND ITS CULTURE WARS. Documents. 1. The Department of Commerce Charts the Economic Transformation of the South, 1955-1987. 2. Casey Hayden and Mary King Write ?Sex and Caste: A Kind of Memo,? 1965. 3. Jerry Falwell Publishes Listen America! 1980. 4. The Religious Right Joins the Republican Party, 1980-1992. 5. The Republican Party Advances in the South, 1980-1988. 6. Two Southern Politicians, a Republican and a Democrat, Candidly Discuss Politics, 1981/1982. 7. Southern Baptists Apologize for Endorsing Slavery, Segregation, and Racism, 1995. 8. Cartoonist Walt Handelsman Waves the Confederate Flag Controversy, 2000. 9. Obama Strikes a Southern Strategy for a New, Blue Dixie, 2008. Essays. Dan T. Carter, Nixon, Wallace, and the Rise of the Conservative Right. Matthew D. Lassiter and Kevin M. Kruse, The Bulldozer Revolution: Suburbs and Southern History. Marjorie Julian Spruill, Mississippi Women Elect Delegates to the International Women?s Year Conference of 1977. 14. THE SOUTH IN AMERICA. Essays. Raymond Arsenault, The Air Conditioner and Southern Culture. Pete Daniel, Rhythms of the Land: A Look at Southern Culture. Jack Temple Kirby, Postmodern Landscapes: A Look at Southern Ecology. Chris Kromm and Sue Sturgis, Hurricane Katrina and the Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement. John Egerton, The End of the South as a Problem.