Designed to encourage critical thinking about history, the Major Problems in American History series introduces students to both primary sources and analytical essays on important topics in US history. This collection, designed for courses on Texas history or the history of southwest, covers the subject's entire chronological span.
Sam W. Haynes is an Associate Professor at the University of Texas at Arlington, where he teaches courses in Texas history and early nineteenth century U.S. history. He received his BA from Columbia University and his PhD from the University of Houston. He is the author of Soldiers of Misfortune: The Somervell and Mier Expeditions (1990) and James K. Polk and the Expansionist Impulse (1996). He has edited several books, including Thomas Jefferson Green's Journal of the Texian Expedition Against Mier (1992) and, with Christopher Morris, Manifest Destiny and Empire: Essays in American Antebellum Expansionism (1997). He also served an associate editor of the reference work The United States and Mexico at War: Nineteenth Century Expansion and Conflict (1998). He has won several research fellowships, as well as a Dobie-Paisano Writers' Fellowship sponsored by the Texas Institute of Letters. He is currently working on a study of American attitudes toward Great Britain during the Jacksonian period. Cary DeCordova Wintz, professor of history and chair of the Department of History, Geography, and Economics at Texas Southern University, received his Ph.D. in history from Kansas State University. He teaches courses in Texas history, Mexican American history, and African American history, and is the author or co-author of several books, including Black Culture and the Harlem Renaissance (Rice University Press, 1988). He is the editor of a number of works, including Black Dixie: Essays on Afro-Texas History and Culture in Houston (Texas A&M University Press, 1992), African American Political Thought, 1890-1930: Washington, Du Bois, Garvey, and Randolph (M.E. Sharpe, 1996), The Harlem Renaissance, 1920-1940: Interpretation of an African American Literary Movement, 7 Vols. (Garland Publishing, 1996), and The Clansman: A Historical Romance of the Ku Klux Klan, by Thomas Dixon, Jr. (edited and abridged) (M.E. Sharpe, 2001). He is the recipient of five grants from the National Endowment for the Humanities, and he has traveled abroad on a Fulbright grant and on fellowships from the Korea Society and the Mobil foundation. He is the past president of the Southwestern Social Science Association and is currently at work on two new projects dealing with the Harlem Renaissance.
1. Enduring Myths and the Land ESSAYS Mark E. Nackman, The Roots of Texas Exceptionalism Walter L. Buenger and Robert A. Calvert, The Shelf Life of Truth in Texas Benjamin Soskis, The New Texas 2. Contested Empire: The Native Americans of Texas and European Contact DOCUMENTS 1. Cabeza de Vaca Encounters the Indians of Texas, 1535 2. Luis de Moscoso Explores East Texas, 1542 3. A Caddo War Party Returns Home, 1687 4. Spain Reacts to the French Presence in Texas, 1689 5. A Franciscan Reports on Prospects for Converting the Caddo Indians, 1691 ESSAYS John C. Ewers, The Impact of European Diseases on Texas Indians Daniel A. Hickerson, The Caddo Confederacy 3. The Challenges of Spanish Colonization: Struggles and Accommodation in the Eighteenth Century DOCUMENTS 1. The Canary Islanders State Their Grievances to the Viceroy, 1741 2. Father Benito Fernández Refutes the Canary Islanders' Complaints, 1741 3. Father Gaspar Jose de Solis Praises the Productivity of Indians at the San Jose Mission, 1768 4. Father Miguel de Molina Describes the Attack on the San Sabá Mission, 1758 5. Retrenchment in the Borderlands: The Rubi Dictamen, April 10, 1768 6. Father Jose Francisco Lopez Advocates Secularizing the Missions in San Antonio, 1792 ESSAYS Gilberto M. Hinojosa, Self-Sufficiency and the San Antonio Missions Jesus F. de la Teja, The Making of a Tejano Community 4. Populating Texas During the Late Spanish and Mexican Periods, 1810-1835 DOCUMENTS 1. Mexican Revolutionary Bernardo Gutierrez Promises Spoils of War to Army Volunteers at Nacogdoches, 1812 2. Stephen F. Austin Seeks Settlers of "Unblemished Character," 1823 3. The Coahuila y Texas Immigration Law of 1824 4. Caroline von Hinueber Describes the Hardship of Life in Austin's Colony, 1832 5. Anglo Leaders of the Fredonian Revolt State Their Reasons for Insurrection Against Mexico, 1826 6. Mier y Teran Fears Mexico May Lose Texas, 1830 7. Mexico Seeks to Block Anglo-American Immigration: The April 6, 1830 Law 8. The San Antonio Ayuntamiento Petitions the Mexican Government for a Liberal Immigration Policy, 1832 ESSAYS Arnoldo de Leon, Early Anglo Settlers View Mexicans with Hostility Gregg Cantrell, Stephen F. Austin: Political and Cultural Mediator 5. Revolutionary Texas, 1835-1836 DOCUMENTS 1. Stephen F. Austin Declares His Support for Independence, 1835 2. Map of Texas on the Eve of Revolution, 1835 3. Texas Declaration of Independence, March 2, 1836 4. Mexico's Secretary of War Jose Maria Tornel Rebuts the Texan Reasons for Independence, 1836 5. Alamo Commander William B. Travis Appeals for Aid, March 3, 1836 6. Mexican Lieutenant Jose Enrique de la Pena Describes the Fall of the Alamo, 1836 7. Mrs. Dilue Harris Recounts the "Runaway Scrape," 1836 8. Mirabeau B. Lamar Complains of Insubordination in the Ranks of the Texas Army, 1836 9. American Abolitionist Benjamin Lundy Sees a Southern Slave Conspiracy, 1836 ESSAYS Eugene Barker, Mexico and Texas: A Collision of Two Cultures David J. Weber, Refighting the Alamo: Mythmaking and the Texas Revolution Paul Lack, Slavery and the Texas Revolution 6. The Fragile Republic: Building New Communities, 1836-1845 DOCUMENTS 1. An Anonymous Visitor Describes Land Speculation in Houston City, 1837 2. Mirabeau Lamar Appeals to Texas Nationalism, November 10, 1838 3. The Homestead Exemption Act Protects Debtors, January 26, 1839 4. Noah Smithwick Negotiates a Treaty with the Comanche Indians, 1838 5. Mary Maverick Describes the Council House Fight Between Comanches and San Antonio Residents, 1840 6. Juan Seguin Flees to Mexico After the Vásquez Invasion, 1842 7. Sam Houston Threatens Reprisals Against Mexico, March 21, 1842 8. A Texan Mocks the Houston Administration's Military Record, 1843 ESSAYS William Ransom Hogan, Frontier Individualism and the Texas Republic Sam W. Haynes, Sam Houston and His Antagonists 7. Texas Joins the Union: Changing Roles for Tejanos and Women in the New State, 1845-1860 DOCUMENTS 1. Thomas Jefferson Green Dreams of Empire, 1845 2. The United States Annexes Texas, March 1845 3. Entrepreneurs Richard King and Mifflin Kenedy Build a Mercantile and Cattle Empire, 1850 4. Frederick Law Olmsted Describes Tejano and Anglo Conflicts in the New State, 1859 5. Ranchero Juan Nepuocemo Cortina States His Reasons for Revolt Against Texas, 1859 6. Lucadia Pease Recovers from Influenza, 1852 7. German Pioneer Ottilie Fuchs Goeth Recalls the Hardships of Life in Central Texas, 1859 ESSAYS David Montejano, Anglos Establish Authority over Mexicans in South Texas Jane Dysart, Mexican Women and the Process of Cultural Assimilation Ann Patton Malone, Victorian Womanhood on the Texas Frontier 8. Secession and Civil War, 1861-1865 DOCUMENTS 1. Andy J. Anderson, Former Slave, Recalls Life During the Civil War, n.d. 2. Lulu Wilson, Former Slave, Describes the Hardships of Slavery, 1938 3. Texans State Their Reasons for Secession, 1861 4. Sam Houston Opposes Secession, 1861 5. Dr. Thomas Barrett Describes the Gainesville Lynching, 1862 6. Rebecca Ann Adams Writes to Her Husband About Life on the Home Front, 1863 ESSAYS Randolph B. Campbell, An Empire for Slavery Walter L. Buenger, The Roots of Texas Secession 9. Race, Politics, and Reconstruction, 1865-1875 DOCUMENTS 1. General Gordon Grangers Frees All Texas Slaves, June 19, 1865 2. Three Slaves Remember Emancipation (1865), 1937-1938 3. Confederate Unionist John H. Reagan Advocates Civil and Political Rights for Blacks, 1865 4. Republican Newspaper Editor John L. Haynes Berates the Democrats for Failure to Protect Freedmen, 1867 5. Freedmen's Bureau Agents Report on the Status of Freedmen, 1867 6. An "Unreconstructed" Rebel Laments His Cause (poem), c. 1865 7. White Southerner Martin M. Kenney Describes Reconstruction in Austin County, n.d. 8. African American Platform Expresses Concerns About the end of Republican Rule, 1873 ESSAYS Barry A. Crouch, White Violence in Reconstruction Texas Carl H. Moneyhon, George T. Ruby and African American Politics During Reconstruction 10. Conquering and Populating the Frontiers, 1860-1890 DOCUMENTS 1. Hugh Harmon McElvy, a Georgia Farmer, Reports on the Hardships Farmers Faced on the Texas Frontier, 1871 2. Army Wife Emily K. Andrews Gives a Woman's View of the Texas Frontier, 1874 3. Will Crittenden, an African American Cowboy, Describes Life on the Range, 1870s-1880s 4. Elario Cardova, a Mexican American Cowboy, Remembers Working as a Ranch Hand in South Texas, 1870s-1880s 5. Mrs. Ben Miskimon, a Woman on the Range, Recounts Her Experiences Running the Family Cattle Business in Texas, 1874 6. Texas Humorist Alexander Sweet Scoffs at the Images in an Eastern "Wild West Show," 1884 7. Captain George Wythe Baylor, Texas Ranger, Gives a Stark Account of the Last Battle Between the Apache and the Rangers, 1880 ESSAYS Terry G. Jordan, Southern Origins of the Texas Cattle Industry Arnoldo De Leon and Kenneth L. Stewart, Power Struggle in the Valley: Mexicans and Anglos in South Texas, 1850-1900 Jacqueline S. Reinier, Women on the Texas Frontier 11. Suffrage and Beyond: Texas Women and Reform, 1885-1925 DOCUMENTS 1. Texas Pioneer Ann Other Describes Women's Political Interests in the Farmers' Revolt, 1888 2. Tyler Women's Club Presents the Virtues of the Club in a Poem from The Club Monthly, 1897 3. Newspaper Columnist Pauline Periwinkle Celebrates Transforming Social Clubs into Civic Reform Organizations, 1904 4. Mrs. R. W. Simpson, Chairman of the Texas General Federation of Women's Clubs, Presents the Federation's Environmental Agenda, 1914 5. Texas Suffrage Organizer Jane Y. McCallum Describes the Impeachment Rally Against Governor James Ferguson, July 28, 1917 6. Mrs. Percy V. Pennybacker, Texas Suffrage Organizer, Writes About Political Implications of Losing the Suffrage Amendment in Congress, 1918 7. Mrs. Percy V. Pennybacker Explains the Dangers of Fergusonism to the Suffrage Movement, 1918 8. Suffragist Minnie Fisher Cunningham Begins Planning Political Activity in Texas in the Postsuffrage Era, 1918 ESSAYS Marion K. Barthelme, Texas Women and the Farmers' Alliance Betty T. Chapman, Women's Clubs as Vehicles for Reform in Houston, 1885-1918 12 . Oil, Industrialization, and Urbanization, 1900-1940 DOCUMENTS 1. The Dallas Morning News Reports the Oil Discovery at Spindletop, January 11, 1901 2. Oil Workers Al Hamill and Curt Hamill Give Eyewitness Accounts of the Spindletop Gusher, 1901 3. The Dallas Morning News Praises Urban Planning for the City of Dallas, 1910 4. Boston City Planner Arthur Comey Presents a Plan for the Development of Houston, 1913 5. The Houston Post Reports the Mutiny of African American Troops, 1917 6. Texans Tell Reporter Robert T. Devine That Some of "the Best People" Belong to the Klan, 1922 7. African American Activist Cliffard Richardson Assesses the Needs of Black Neighborhoods in Houston, 1928 8. Humble Oil Vice President John Suman Relates Prosperity in Houston to the Growth of the Texas Oil Industry, 1940 ESSAYS Bruce Andre Beauboeuf, World War I and Houston's Emergence as an Industrial City Robert B. Fairbanks, Boosterism, Reform, and Planning in Dallas in the 1920s and 1930s 13. Defining Mexican American Identity in Texas, 1910-1950 DOCUMENTS 1. Mexican American Nationalists Call for a Separate Republic in the Southwest, 1915 2. Map Showing Where Americans Were Killed in Ethnic Violence in Northern Mexico, Texas, and New Mexico, 1910-1919 3. Novelist Lionel G. Garcia Presents the Battle of the Alamo and San Jacinto from a Fictional Twentieth-Century Perspective, 1987 4. The League of Latin American Citizens (LULAC) States Its Objectives, Goals, and Code, 1932, 1933 5. The Chapultepec Club, a Mexican American Women's Club in Houston, Lists Complaints Concerning Treatment of Minorities, 1937 6. Emma Tenayuca and Homer Brooks, Officers of the Texas Communist Party, Outline Their Vision for Mexican Unification, 1939 7. Poet Americo Paredes Manzano Laments the Oppression of the Mexico-Texan, 1939 8. The Constitution of the American G.I. Forum of Texas Seeks Equal Rights for Mexican Americans in the Post-World War II Era ESSAYS Mario T. Garcia, LULAC, Mexican American Identity, and Civil Rights Irene Ledesma, Race, Gender, Class, and Image in the Chicana Labor Struggle, 1918-1938 14. The African American Struggle for Civil Rights in Texas, 1940-1960 DOCUMENTS 1. NAACP Attorney Thurgood Marshall Describes Efforts to Challenge the White Primary, 1941 2. Smith v. Allwright Declares the White Primary Unconstitutional, April 3, 1944 3. Broadside Documents Political Action of African Americans After Defeat of the White Primary, 1948 4. The Founding of Texas Southern University Affirms "Separate But Equal" Education, 1947 5. The Supreme Court Rules Separate Education Is Unequal in Sweatt v. Painter, April 4, 1950 6. An Undentified Investigator Gathers Intelligence on Desegregation Activities in El Paso, 1955 7. White Backlash: The Texas Citizen's Council of Houston Describes Links Between Civil Rights Activities and Communists, 1956 8. Liberal State Senator Henry B. Gonzalez Uses the Filibuster to Oppose Anti-Desegregation Bills, 1957 9. The Dallas NAACP Organizes Against the Segregationists, 1957 ESSAYS Merline Petre, Lulu B. White, the NAACP, and Launching the Fight Against Segregation in Houston Yvonne Davis Freer, Juanita Craft and the Struggle to End Segregation in Dallas, 1945-1955 15. The Rise of the Republican Party and the Transformation of Texas Politics, 1960-2000 DOCUMENTS 1. The Sharpstown Stock Scandal Shakes the Texas Democratic Party, 1971 2. Charles Deaton Analyzes the Election of Republican Governor William Clements, 1978 3. Time Reports the Collapse of the Oil Industry in Texas, 1982 4. Newsweek "Laments" the Demise of the Texas Millionaire, 1986 5. The Texas Observer Proclaims the Death of the Yellow-Dog Democrat, 1994 6. The Houston Chronicle Explains the Political Realignment in Texas, 1994 7. The Texas Monthly Assesses the Collapse of the Democratic Party in Texas, 1998 8. The Houston Chronicle Explains the Republican Sweep, 1998 ESSAYS Chandler Davidson, An Anatomy of Right Wing Republicans George N. Green and John J. Kushma, John Tower and the Rise of the Texas Republican Party