Synopses & Reviews
An entirely new way for students to observe, analyze, and understand meteorology, - Steven A. Ackerman and John A. Knox's METEOROLOGY: UNDERSTANDING THE ATMOSPHERE is scientific, topical, and scholarly. The authors use vivid photographs and compelling real-life stories to present the subject of weather as it directly affects your students. METEOROLOGY generates genuine enthusiasm for the subject by using conceptual models and engaging narrative to truly make weather phenomena come alive. METEOROLOGY emphasizes how we observe the atmosphere and then uses those observations to explain atmospheric phenomena. New "Observational Questions" further extend this emphasis by asking students to analyze photographs, data, or their own experiences. By learning how to interpret scientific observations of the atmosphere, students can deepen their understanding of the subject. The second edition offers complete integration with MeteorologyNow™, the first assessment-driven and student-centered online learning solution created specifically for this course. MeteorologyNow™ uses a series of chapter-specific diagnostic tests to build a personalized learning plan for each student, allowing students to focus their study time on specific areas of weaknesses. Each personalized learning plan directs students to specific text sections as well as to a set of over three dozen Java applets designed to augment their understanding. These acclaimed applets, designed by Tom Whittaker and co-author Steven Ackerman, are divided into two types, "Observational Learning" applets deal with interpreting satellite imagery and "Atmospheric Explorations" extend the book's treatment of key topics, such as weather map analysis and numerical weather models.
About the Author
Steven Ackerman is Professor of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences at the University of Wisconsin, Madison, and is Director of the Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies (CIMSS). He received his Ph.D. in Atmospheric Sciences at Colorado State University. Ackerman's research interests center on understanding how changes in the radiation balance affect and are affected by changes in other climate variables such as clouds, aerosols, water vapor, and surface properties. These feedback mechanisms are studied using a compliment of theoretical models and observations. He has been actively involved in a number of meteorological projects and programs, including the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment, the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Program, and the NOAA Global Climate Change Program. Renowned for his ability to inspire active student participation in his classes, Ackerman has won numerous teaching and academic awards, including the 1999 Chancellor's Award for Distinguished Teaching (University of Wisconsin) and the 2000 Teaching and Learning with Technology Grant (University of Wisconsin). Ackerman is also a member of the University of Wisconsin Teaching Academy. John Knox is currently Assistant Research Scientist and Lecturer in the Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering at the University of Georgia. In addition to his teaching experience at the University of Georgia, Knox has also taught meteorology at Valparaiso University and Barnard College of Columbia University. A National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellow in meteorology at the University of Wisconsin, Madison, and Rhodes Scholar finalist, he received a B.S. summa cum laude in mathematics in 1988 from the University of Alabama at Birmingham and a Ph.D. in atmospheric science in 1996 from the University of Wisconsin-Madison. He was a post-doctoral fellow in climate systems at Columbia University in conjunction with the NASA/Goddard Institute for Space Studies (NASA/GISS) in New York City. Knox has been very active in geoscience education, with articles published in the Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, the Journal of Geoscience Education, Mathematical Geology, The Physics Teacher, and the Journal of College Science Teaching, for which he has also served on JCST's Board of Advisors. His research in atmospheric dynamics includes journal articles on Rossby waves, non-linear balance, clear-air turbulence, and cyclone-induced windstorms, and is currently supported by NASA.
Table of Contents
1. INTRODUCTION TO THE ATMOSPHERE. Introduction. Weather and Climate. The Earths Major Surface Features. Making an Atmosphere: Gases and Gravity. Atmospheric Evolution and Composition. Trace Gases and Aerosols. Box 1.1: Most Air is Lighter Than Dry Air. Carbon Dioxide Cycle. Hydrologic Cycle. Methane. Chlorofluorocarbons. Aerosols. Atmospheric Pressure and Density. Basic Concepts. Pressure and Altitude. Box 1.2: The Ideal Gas Law. Dividing up the Atmosphere. Box 1.3: Why Do Your Ears Pop? An Introduction to Weather Maps. Basic Concepts. The Station Model. Time Zones. Weather Watches, Warnings, and Advisories. Summary. Key Terms. Review Questions. Web Activities. 2. THE ENERGY CYCLE. Introduction. Force, Work, and Heat. Transferring Energy in the Atmosphere. Conduction: Requires Touching. Convection: Hot Air Rises. Heat Advection: Horizontal Movement of Air. Latent Heating: Changing the Phase of Water. Adiabatic Cooling and Warming: Expanding and Compressing Air. Diabatic Cooling and Warming: Adding and Subtracting Heat. Radiative Heat Transfer: Exchanging Energy with Space. Box 2.1: Ozone. The Sun Supplies Energy to Earth. Radiative Properties of the Atmosphere. The Greenhouse Effect. Greenhouse Warming: The Basics. The Global Average Energy Budget: Heat Is Transferred from the Surface to the Atmosphere. Box 2.2: Monitoring the Earths Energy Budget. Summary. Key Terms. Review Questions. Web Activities. 3. TEMPERATURE. Introduction. Surface Temperature. Surface Energy Budget. Temperature Cycles. Annual Temperature Cycle. Interannual Temperature Variations. Box 3.1: Volcanoes and Temperature. Diurnal Temperature Cycle. Box 3.2: Record Cold and Record Heat Across the United States. Temperature Variation with Height. Lapse Rates and Stability. Temperature Inversions Near the Ground. Wind-Chill Temperature. Temperature and Agriculture. Box 3.3: Temperature and Your Health. Summary. Key Terms. Review Questions. Web Activities. 4. WATER IN THE ATMOSPHERE. Introduction. Evaporation. The Source of Atmospheric Water. Measuring Water Vapor in the Air. Mixing Ratio. Vapor Pressure. Relative Humidity. Box 4.1: Atmospheric Moisture and Your Health. Dew Point/Frost Point. Condensation and Deposition: Cloud Formation. Solute and Curvature Effects. Nucleation. Cloud Particle Growth by Condensation and Deposition. Fog Formation. Lifting Mechanisms That Form Clouds. Cloud Classification. Low Clouds. Precipitating Clouds. Middle Clouds. High Clouds. Clouds and the Greenhouse Effect. Cloud Composition. Precipitation. Precipitation Growth in Warm Clouds. Box 4.2: Controlling the Weather. Precipitation Growth in Cold Clouds. Precipitation Types. Clouds and Precipitation Near Mountains. Summary. Key Terms. Review Questions. Web Activities. 5. OBSERVING THE ATMOSPHERE. Introduction. Meteorological Observations. Direct Measurements of Surface Conditions. Box 5.1: The Meteogram. Temperature. Humidity. Pressure. Wind. Precipitation. Direct Measurements of Upper-Air Weather Observations. Indirect Methods of Observing Weather. Laws of Reflection and Refraction. Box 5.2: Twinkle, Twinkle, Little Star. Scattering. Box 5.3: Multiple Scattering and Climate Change. ASOS Indirect Sensors. Meteorological Satellite Observations. Interpreting Satellite Images. Radar Observations. Atmospheric Optics. Mirages. Halos. Dispersion of Light. Green Flash. Sundogs. Sun Pillar. Rainbows. Coronas, Glories, and the Brocken Bow. Summary. Key Terms. Review Questions. Web Activities. 6. ATMOSPHERIC FORCES AND WIND. Introduction. Magnitude and Direction of Forces. Laws of Motion. Newtons First Law: Law of Inertia. Newtons Second Law: Law of Momentum. Forces That Move the Air. Gravitational Force. Box 6.1: Planes and Pressure Differences. Pressure Gradient Force. Coriolis Force. Box 6.2: Down the Drain with the Rossby Number--Clockwise or Counterclockwise? Centrifugal Force/Centripetal Acceleration. Frictional Force. Putting Forces Together: Atmospheric Force-Balances. Hydrostatic Balance. Geostrophic Balance, the Geostrophic Wind, and Buys Ballots Law. Gradient Balance and the Gradient Wind. Adjustment to Balance. Guldberg-Mohn Balance and Buys Ballots Law Revisited. Observations of Upper-Level and Surface Wind. Box 6.3: Wind and Waves. Putting Force-Balances Together: The Thermal Wind. Putting Horizontal and Vertical Winds Together. Sea Breezes. Scales of Motion. Summary. Key Terms. Review Questions. Web Activities. 7. GLOBAL-SCALE WINDS. Introduction. What Are Conceptual Models? Observations Our Model Should Explain. A Simple Conceptual Model of Global Circulation Patterns. Box 7.1: Marine Stratocumulus Cloud Regions. Upper-Air Midlatitude Westerlies. The Poleward Transport of Energy. Seasonal Variations. Box 7.2: Precipitation Patterns and Topography. Monsoons. Summary. Key Terms. Review Questions. Web Activities. 8. ATMOSPHERE-OCEAN INTERACTIONS: EL NInO AND TROPIC AL CYCLONES. Introduction. Oceanography. Ocean Temperature. Ocean Currents. El Nino. La Nina. Other Oscillations. Tropical Cyclones: Hurricanes and Typhoons. What Are They? What Do They Look Like? How and Where Do They Form? How Are They Structured? Box 8.1: The "Hurricane Hunters". What Are the Different Stages of Their "Lives"? Box 8.2: Naming Hurricanes. What Does a Years Worth of Tropical Cyclones Look Like? How Do They Cause Destruction? How Do We Observe and Forecast Tropical Cyclones? Past, Present, and Future. Box 8.3: Bryan Norcross, TV Meteorologist and Hero. Summary. Key Terms. Review Questions. Web Activities. 9. AIR MASSES AND FRONTS. Introduction. What Is an Air Mass? Observations. Box 9.1: Deadly Heat Waves. Air Mass Types. Air Mass Source Regions. Atmospheric Stability Revisited. Air Masses Affecting North America. Maritime Polar Air Masses. Continental Polar Air Masses. Arctic Air Masses. Continental Tropical Air Masses. Maritime Tropical Air Masses. Air Mass Modification. Fronts. Box 9.2: Lake-Effect Snows. Cold Fronts. Warm Fronts. Stationary Fronts. Occluded Fronts. Drylines. Summary. Key Terms. Review Questions. Web Activities. 10. EXTRATROPICAL CYCLONES AND ANTICYCLONES. Introduction. A Time and Place of Tragedy. A Life Cycle of Growth and Death. Day One: Birth of an Extratropical Cyclone. Typical Extratropical Cyclone Paths. Box 10.1: Making Cyclones and Waves. Day Two: With the Fitz. Portrait of the Cyclone as a Young Adult. Cyclones and Fronts: On the Ground. Cyclones and Fronts: In the Sky. Back with the Fitz: A Fateful Course Correction. Cyclones and Jet Streams. Day Three: The Mature Cyclone. Bittersweet Badge of Adulthood: The Occlusion Process. Box 10.2: Cyclones and Water: Bomb and Bust. Hurricane West Wind. One of the Worst. "Nosedive". Box 10.3: Cyclone Winds in 3D: Belts, Slots, and Squalls. Day Four (and Beyond): Death. The Cyclone. The Fitzgerald. The Sailors. The Extratropical Anticyclone. Anticyclones and Another Fitzgerald Tragedy. High Pressure, Low Visibility. Summary. Key Terms. Review Questions. Web Activities. 11. THUNDERSTORMS AND TORNADOES. Introduction. What Is a Thunderstorm? Thunderstorm Distribution. Factors Affecting Thunderstorm Growth and Development. Types of Thunderstorms. Ordinary Single-Cell Thunderstorm. Multicell Thunderstorm. Supercell Thunderstorm. The Tornado. Tornado Formation and Life Cycle. Box 11.1: Storm Chasers. Radar Observations of Tornadoes. Tornado Winds. Tornado Distribution. The Waterspout. Box 11.2: Severe Weather Safety. Other Thunderstorm Severe Weather. Lightning. Flash Floods and Flooding. Hail. Summary. Key Terms. Review Questions. Web Activities. 12. SMALL-SCALE WINDS. Introduction. Friction in the Air: Turbulent "Eddies". Box 12.1: Clean-Air Turbulence. A Tour of Small-Scale Winds. The East and South. Coastal Fronts and Cold-Air Damming. Box 12.2: The Windiest Place on Earth. Microbursts. Gravity Waves. The Midwest. Lake Breezes. Derechos. The Great Plains. Blue Northers. Box 12.3: Using Turbulence to Advantage: Snow Fences and Windbreaks. Chinooks. Box 12.4: Dust Storms and the "Dust Bowl". The West. Mountain/Valley Breezes and Windstorms. Dust Devils. Lenticular Clouds. Santa Ana Winds. von K?rm?n Vortex Street. The Big Picture. Summary. Key Terms. Review Questions. Web Activities. 13. WEATHER FORECASTING. Methods of Forecasting by People. Folklore. Persistence and Climatology. Box 13.1: Personal Weather Forecasting. Trend and Analog. A Real Life-or-Death Forecast: D-Day, June 1944. L.F. Richardson and the Dawn of Numerical Weather Forecasting. Box 13.2: Modeling the Equations of the Air. Box 13.3: L.F. Richardson: Pioneer and Prophet. The Numerical Weather Prediction Process, Then and Now. Step One: Weather Observations. Step Two: Data Assimilation. Step Three: Forecast Model Integration. Box 13.4: "Blowing Up" a Forecast Model. Step Four: Forecast Tweaking and Broadcasting. Box 13.5: A Day in the Life of Private-Sector Meteorology. Modern Numerical Weather Prediction Models. Short-Range Forecast Models. Medium-Range Forecast Models. A Real Life-or-Death Forecast: The "Storm of the Century," March 1993. The Medium-Range Forecast. The Short-Range Forecast for Washington, D.C. The Short-Range Forecast for Birmingham, Alabama. The Storm of the Century Appears. A Perfect Forecast. Nowcasting in D.C. The Aftermath. Why Forecasts Still Go Wrong Today. Imperfect Data. Faulty "Vision" and "Fudges". Chaos. Forecasts of Forecast Accuracy: Ensemble Forecasting. Pushing the Envelope: Numerical Nowcasts and Long-Range Prediction. The Proper Perspective. Summary. Key Terms. Review Questions. Web Activities. 14. PAST AND PRESENT CLIMATES. Introduction. Defining Climate. Climate Controls. Classifying Todays Climate Zones. Tropical Humid Climates (A). Dry Climates (B). Moist Subtropical and Midlatitude Climates (C). Severe Midlatitude Climates (D). Polar Climates (E). Highland Climates (H). Past Climates: The Clues. Historical Data. Tree Rings. Pollen Records. Box 14.1: Dating Ancient Climates. Air Bubbles and Dust in Ice Sheets. Box 14.2: Glaciers and Icebergs. Marine Sediments. Fossil Records. Past Climates: The Change Mechanisms. Volcanic Eruptions. Asteroid Impacts. Solar Variability. Variations of the Earths Orbit: Milankovitch Cycles. Plate Tectonics. Changes in Ocean Circulation Patterns. Summary. Key Terms. Review Questions. Web Activities. 15. HUMAN INFLUENCES ON CLIMATE. Introduction. Observations of Global Warming. Feedback Mechanisms. Air Pollution. Acid Deposition. The Stratospheric Ozone Hole. Changing Land Surfaces. Desertification. Urban Heat Islands. Greenhouse Gases and Global Warming. Global Warming and Atmospheric Water. Global Warming and the Oceans. Box 15.1: Contrails. Climate Modeling. Climate Change Assessment. Climate Change and Health. Climate Change and Coastal Regions. Climate Change and Forests. Closure. Summary. Key Terms. Review Questions. Web Activities. Glossary. Index. Credits.