This second edition emphasizes the fundamental concepts of Maxwell's equations, wave propagation, network analysis and design principles as applied to modern microwave engineering. Applications of microwave engineering are also changing, with increasing emphasis on commercial use of microwave technology for personal communications systems, wireless local area networks, millimeter wave collision avoidance vehicle radars, radio frequency (RF) identification tagging, direct broadcast satellite television, and many other systems related to the information infrastructure.
1. ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY.
1.1 Introduction to Microwave Engineering.
Applications of Microwave Engineering.
A Short History of Microwave Engineering.
1.2 Maxwell’s Equations.
1.3 Fields in Media and Boundary Conditions.
Fields at a General Material Interface 11 Fields at a Dielectric Interface.
Fields at the Interface with a Perfect Conductor (Electric Wall).
The MagneticWall Boundary Condition.
The Radiation Condition.
1.4 The Wave Equation and Basic Plane Wave Solutions.
The Helmholtz Equation.
Plane Waves in a Lossless Medium.
Plane Waves in a General Lossy Medium.
Plane Waves in a Good Conductor.
1.5 General Plane Wave Solutions.
Circularly Polarized Plane Waves.
1.6 Energy and Power.
Power Absorbed by a Good Conductor.
1.7 Plane Wave Reflection from a Media Interface.
General Medium.
Lossless Medium.
Good Conductor.
Perfect Conductor.
The Surface Impedance Concept.
1.8 Oblique Incidence at a Dielectri c Interface.
Parallel Polarization.
Perpendicular Polarization.
Total Reflection and Surface Waves.
1.9 Some Useful Theorems.
The Reciprocity Theorem.
Image Theory.
2. TRANSMISSION LINE THEORY.
2.1 The Lumped-Element Circuit Model for a Transmission Line.
Wave Propagation on a Transmission Line.
The Lossless Line.
2.2 Field Analysis of Transmission Lines.
Transmission Line Parameters.
The Telegrapher Equations Derived from Field Analysis of a Coaxial Line.
Propagation Constant, Impedance, and Power Flow for the Lossless
Coaxial Line.
2.3 The Terminated Lossless Transmission Line.
Special Cases of Lossless Terminated Lines.
2.4 The Smith Chart.
The Combined Impedance-Admittance Smith Chart.
The Slotted Line.
2.5 The Quarter-Wave Transformer.
The Impedance Viewpoint.
The Multiple Reflection Viewpoint.
2.6 Generator and Load Mismatches.
Load Matched to Line.
Generator Matched to Loaded Line.
Conjugate Matching.
2.7 Lossy Transmission Lines.
The Low-Loss Line.
The Distortionless Line.
The Terminated Lossy Line.
The Perturbation Method for Calculating Attenuation.
The Wheeler Incremental Inductance Rule.
3. TRANSMISSION LINES AND WAVEGUIDES.
3.1 General Solutions for TEM, TE, and TM Waves.
TEM Waves.
TE Waves.
TM Waves.
Attenuation Due to Dielectric Loss.
3.2 Parallel Plate Waveguide.
TEM Modes.
TM Modes.
TE Modes.
3.3 RectangularWaveguide.
TE Modes.
TM Modes.
TEm0 Modes of a Partially Loaded Waveguide.
3.4 Circular Waveguide.
TE Modes.
TM Modes.
3.5 Coaxial Line.
TEM Modes.
Higher Order Modes.
3.6 Surface Waves on a Grounded Dielectric Slab.
TM Modes.
TE Modes.
3.7 Stripline.
Formulas for Propagation Constant, Characteristic Impedance,
and Attenuation.
An Approximate Electrostatic Solution.
3.8 Microstrip.
Formulas for Effective Dielectric Constant, Characteristic Impedance,
and Attenuation.
An Approximate Electrostatic Solution.
3.9 The Transverse Resonance Technique.
TE0nModes of a Partially Loaded Rectangular Waveguide.
3.10 Wave Velocities and Dispersion.
Group Velocity.
3.11 Summary of Transmission Lines and Waveguides.
Other Types of Lines and Guides.
4. MICROWAVE NETWORK ANALYSIS.
4.1 Impedance and Equivalent Voltages and Currents.
Equivalent Voltages and Currents.
The Concept of Impedance.
Even and Odd Properties of Z(?) and _(?).
4.2 Impedance and Admittance Matrices.
Reciprocal Networks.
Lossless Networks.
4.3 The Scattering Matrix.
Reciprocal Networks and Lossless Networks.
A Shift in Reference Planes.
Generalized Scattering Parameters.
4.4 The Transmission (ABCD) Matrix.
Relation to Impedance Matrix.
Equivalent Circuits for Two-Port Networks.
4.5 Signal Flow Graphs.
Decomposition of Signal Flow Graphs.
Application to TRL Network Analyzer Calibration.
4.6 Discontinuities and Modal Analysis.
Modal Analysis of an H-Plane Step in Rectangular Waveguide.
4.7 Excitation of Waveguides—Electric and Magnetic Currents.
Current Sheets That Excite Only One Waveguide Mode.
Mode Excitation from an Arbitrary Electric or Magnetic
Current Source.
4.8 Excitation of Waveguides—Aperture Coupling.
Coupling Through an Aperture in a Transverse Waveguide Wall.
Coupling Through an Aperture in the Broad Wall of a Waveguide.
5. IMPEDANCE MATCHING AND TUNING.
5.1 Matching with Lumped Elements (LNetworks).
Analytic Solutions.
Smith Chart Solutions.
5.2 Single-Stub Tuning.
Shunt Stubs.
Series Stubs.
5.3 Double-Stub Tuning.
Smith Chart Solution.
Analytic Solution.
5.4 The Quarter-Wave Transformer.
5.5 The Theory of Small Reflections.
Single-Section Transformer.
Multisection Transformer.
5.6 Binomial Multisection Matching Transformers.
5.7 Chebyshev Multisection Matching Transformers.
Chebyshev Polynomials.
Design of Chebyshev Transformers.
5.8 Tapered Lines.
Exponential Taper.
Triangular Taper.
Klopfenstein Taper.
5.9 The Bode-Fano Criterion.
6. MICROWAVE RESONATORS.
6.1 Series and Parallel Resonant Circuits.
Series Resonant Circuit.
Parallel Resonant Circuit.
Loaded and Unloaded Q.
6.2 Transmission Line Resonators.
Short-Circuited ?/2 Line.
Short-Circuited ?/4 Line.
Open-Circuited ?/2 Line.
6.3 RectangularWaveguide Cavities.
Resonant Frequencies.
Qof the TE10_Mode.
6.4 Circular Waveguide Cavities.
Resonant Frequencies.
Qof the TEnm_Mode.
6.5 Dielectric Resonators.
Resonant Frequencies of TE01?Mode.
6.6 Excitation of Resonators.
Critical Coupling.A Gap-Coupled Microstrip Resonator.
An Aperture-Coupled Cavity.
6.7 Cavity Perturbations.
Material Perturbations.
Shape Perturbations.
7. POWER DIVIDERS AND DIRECTIONAL COUPLERS.
7.1 Basic Properties of Dividers and Couplers.
Three-Port Networks (T-Junctions).
Four-Port Networks (Directional Couplers).
7.2 The T-Junction Power Divider.
Lossless Divider.
Resistive Divider.
7.3 The Wilkinson Power Divider.
Even-Odd Mode Analysis.
Unequal Power Division and N-Way Wilkinson Dividers.
7.4 Waveguide Directional Couplers.
Bethe Hole Coupler.
Design of Multihole Couplers.
7.5 The Quadrature (90.) Hybrid.
Even-Odd Mode Analysis.
7.6 Coupled Line Directional Couplers.
Coupled Line Theory.
Design of Coupled Line Couplers.
Design of Multisection Coupled Line Couplers.
7.7 The Lange Coupler.
7.8 The 180.Hybrid.
Even-Odd Mode Analysis of the Ring Hybrid.
Even-Odd Mode Analysis of the Tapered Coupled Line Hybrid.
Waveguide Magic-T.
7.9 Other Couplers.
8. MICROWAVE FILTERS.
8.1 Periodic Structures.
Analysis of Infinite Periodic Structures.
Terminated Periodic Structures.
k-βDiagrams and Wave Velocities.
8.2 Filter Design by the Image Parameter Method.
Image Impedances and Transfer Functions for Two-Port Networks.
Constant-kFilter Sections.
m-Derived Filter Sections.
Composite Filters.
8.3 Filter Design by the Insertion Loss Method.
Characterization by Power Loss Ratio.
Maximally Flat Low-Pass Filter Prototype.
Equal-Ripple Low-Pass Filter Prototype.
Linear Phase Low-Pass Filter Prototypes.
8.4 Filter Transformations.
Impedance and Frequency Scaling.
Bandpass and Bandstop Transformations.
8.5 Filter Implementation.
Richard’s Transformation.
Kuroda’s Identities.
Impedance and Admittance Inverters.
8.6 Stepped-Impedance Low-Pass Filters.
Approximate Equivalent Circuits for Short Transmission Line Sections.
8.7 Coupled Line Filters.
Filter Properties of a Coupled Line Section.
Design of Coupled Line Bandpass Filters.
8.8 Filters Using Coupled Resonators.
Bandstop and Bandpass Filters Using Quarter-Wave Resonators.
Bandpass Filters Using Capacitively Coupled Series Resonators.
Bandpass Filters Using Capacitively Coupled Shunt Resonators.
9. THEORY AND DESIGN OF FERRIMAGNETIC COMPONENTS.
9.1 Basic Properties of Ferrimagnetic Materials.
The Permeability Tensor.
Circularly Polarized Fields.
Effect of Loss.
Demagnetization Factors.
9.2 Plane Wave Propagation in a Ferrite Medium.
Propagation in Direction of Bias (Faraday Rotation).
Propagation Transverse to Bias (Birefringence).
9.3 Propagation in a Ferrite-Loaded RectangularWaveguide.
TEm0 Modes of Waveguide with a Single Ferrite Slab.
TEm0 Modes of Waveguide with Two Symmetrical Ferrite Slabs.
9.4 Ferrite Isolators.
Resonance Isolators.
The Field Displacement Isolator.
9.5 Ferrite Phase Shifters.
Nonreciprocal Latching Phase Shifter.
Other Types of Ferrite Phase Shifters.
The Gyrator.
9.6 Ferrite Circulators.
Properties of a Mismatched Circulator.
Junction Circulator.
10. NOISE AND ACTIVE RF COMPONENTS.
10.1 Noise in Microwave Circuits.
Dynamic Range and Sources of Noise.
Noise Power and Equivalent Noise Temperature.
Measurement of Noise Temperature.
Noise Figure.
Noise Figure of a Cascaded System.
Noise Figure of a Passive Two-Port Network.
Noise Figure of a Mismatched Lossy Line.
10.2 Dynamic Range and Intermodulation Distortion.
Gain Compression 501 Intermodulation Distortion.
Third-Order Intercept Point.
Dynamic Range.
Intercept Point of a Cascaded System.
Passive Intermodulation.
10.3 RF Diode Characteristics.
Schottky Diodes and Detectors.
PIN Diodes and Control.
Circuits.
Varactor Diodes.
Other Diodes.
10.4 RF Transistor Characteristics.
Field EffectTransistors (FETs).
Bipolar JunctionTransistors (BJTs).
10.5 Microwave Integrated Circuits.
Hybrid Microwave Integrated Circuits.
Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuits.
11. MICROWAVE AMPLIFIER DESIGN.
11.1 Two-Port Power Gains.
Definitions of Two-Port Power Gains.
Further Discussion of Two-Port Power Gains.
11.2 Stability.
Stability Circles.
Tests for Unconditional Stability.
11.3 Single-Stage Transistor Amplifier Design.
Design for Maximum Gain (Conjugate Matching).
Constant Gain Circles and Design for Specified Gain.
Low-Noise Amplifier Design.
11.4 Broadband Transistor Amplifier Design.
Balanced Amplifiers.
Distributed Amplifiers.
11.5 Power Amplifiers.
Characteristics of Power Amplifiers and Amplifier Classes.
Large-Signal Characterization of Transistors.
Design of Class A Power Amplifiers.
12. OSCILLATORS AND MIXERS.
12.1 RF Oscillators.
General Analysis.
Oscillators Using a Common Emitter BJT.
Oscillators Using aCommonGateFET.
Practical Considerations.
Crystal Oscillators.
12.2 Microwave Oscillators.
Transistor Oscillators.
Dielectric Resonator Oscillators.
12.3 Oscillator Phase Noise.
Representation of Phase Noise.
Leeson’s Model for Oscillator Phase Noise.
12.4 Frequency Multipliers.
Reactive Diode Multipliers (Manley–Rowe Relations).
Resistive Diode Multipliers.
Transistor Multipliers.
12.5 Overview of Microwave Sources.
Solid-State Sources 609 Microwave Tubes.
12.6 Mixers.
Mixer Characteristics.
Single-Ended Diode Mixer.
Single-Ended FET Mixer.
Balanced Mixer.
Image Reject Mixer.
Other Mixers.
13. INTRODUCTION TO MICROWAVE SYSTEMS.
13.1 System Aspects of Antennas.
Fields and Power Radiated by an Antenna.
Antenna Pattern Characteristics.
Antenna Gain and Efficiency.
Aperture Efficiency and Effective Area.
Background and Brightness Temperature.
Antenna Noise Temperature and G/T.
13.2 Wireless Communication Systems.
The Friis Formula.
Radio Receiver Architectures.
Noise Characterization of a Microwave Receiver.
Wireless Systems.
13.3 Radar Systems.
The Radar Equation.
Pulse Radar.
Doppler Radar.
Radar Cross Section.
13.4 Radiometer Systems.
Theory and Applications of Radiometry.
Total Power Radiometer.
The Dicke Radiometer.
13.5 Microwave Propagation.
Atmospheric Effects.
Ground Effects.
Plasma Effects.
13.6 Other Applications and Topics.
Microwave Heating.
Power Transfer.
Biological Effects and Safety.
APPENDICES.
A: Prefixes.
B: Vector Analysis.
C: Bessel Functions.
D: Other Mathematical Results.
E: Physical Constants.
F: Conductivities for Some Materials.
G: Dielectric Constants and Loss Tangents for Some Materials.
H: Properties of Some Microwave Ferrite Materials.
I: Standard RectangularWaveguide Data.
J: Standard Coaxial Cable Data.
ANSWERS TO SELECTED PROBLEMS.
INDEX.