Synopses & Reviews
For many years the practice of Raman spectroscopy was confined to experts in dedicated academic or industrial research laboratories. The instruments were large, complicated and the experiments quite complex. With advances in modern technology Raman spectrometers can be small, portable and are regularly used by people who are neither specialist spectroscopists nor analysts. This book aims to provide the information necessary to enable new users of Raman spectroscopy to understand and apply the technique correctly and includes descriptions of the many pitfalls that can be encountered.
The early chapters provide enough basic theory to make a practical interpretation of Raman spectra. The theory is dealt with in more depth in later chapters where the approach is to describe the main equations involved in Raman scattering, concentrating on their meaning and relevance. With this background the much more detailed world is revealed in which aspects of Raman spectroscopy can provide unique information for a limited number of analytical problems. A full mathematical approach to the theory of Raman spectroscopy is outside the scope of this book. For those who stay to the end, the book will provide a firm grounding from which to approach more in depth studies of specific aspects of Raman spectroscopy with appropriate references given.
It is the authors’ hope that those who are just developing or reviving an interest in Raman spectroscopy will very quickly gain a practical understanding from the first two chapters. Furthermore they will be inspired by the elegance and information content of the technique to delve further into the rest of the book, opening up the vast potential of the more sophisticated applications of Raman spectroscopy.
Synopsis
This book reflects the dramatic increase in the number of Raman spectrometers being sold to and used by non-expert practitioners. It contains coverage of Resonance Raman and SERS, two hot areas of Raman, in a form suitable for the non-expert.
- Builds Raman theory up in stages without overloading the reader with complex theory
- Includes two chapters on instrumentation and interpretation that shows how Raman spectra can be obtained and interpreted
- Explains the potential of using Raman spectroscopy in a wide variety of applications
- Includes detailed, but concise information and worked examples
Synopsis
This book reflects the dramatic increase in the number of Raman spectrometers being sold to and used by non-expert practitioners. It contains coverage of Resonance Raman and SERS, two hot areas of Raman, in a form suitable for the non-expert. Builds Raman theory up in stages without overloading the reader with complex theory Includes two chapters on instrumentation and interpretation that shows how Raman spectra can be obtained and interpreted Explains the potential of using Raman spectroscopy in a wide variety of applications Includes detailed, but concise information and worked examples
About the Author
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Table of Contents
Preface.
Acknowledgements.
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION, BASIC THEORY AND PRINCIPLES.
1.1 Introduction.
1.2 Basic Theory.
1.3 Molecular Vibrations.
1.4 Summary.
CHAPTER 2: THE RAMAN EXPERIMENT – RAMAN INSTRUMENTATION, SAMPLE PRESENTATION, DATA HANDLING AND PRACTICAL ASPECTS OF INTERPRETATION.
2.1 Introduction.
2.2 Choice of Instrument.
2.3 Visible Excitation.
2.4 NIR Excitation.
2.5 Raman Sample Preparation and Handling.
2.6 Sample Mounting Accessories.
2.7 Microscopy.
2.8 Calibration.
2.9 Data Handling, Manipulation and Quantitation.
2.10 Approach to Qualitative Interpretation.
2.11 Summary.
CHAPTER 3: THE THEORY OF RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY.
3.1 Introduction.
3.2 Absorption and Scattering.
3.3 States of a System and Hooke’s Law.
3.4 The Nature of Polarizability and the Measurement of Polarization.
3.5 The Basic Selection Rule.
3.6 Number and Symmetry of Vibrations.
3.7 Symmetry Elements and Point Groups.
3.8 The Mutual Exclusion Rule.
3.9 The Kramer Heisenberg Dirac Expression.
3.10 Lattice Modes.
3.11 Conclusions.
CHAPTER 4: RESONANCE RAMAN SCATTERING.
4.1 Introduction.
4.2 Theoretical Aspects.
4.3 Practical Aspects.
4.4 Examples of the Use of Resonance Raman Scattering.
4.5 Conclusions.
CHAPTER 5: SURFACE-ENHANCED RAMAN SCATTERING AND SURFACE-ENHANCED RESONANCE RAMAN SCATTERING.
5.1 Introduction.
5.2 Theory.
5.3 Electromagnetic and Charge Transfer Enhancement.
5.4 Selection Rules.
5.5 Applications of SERS.
5.6 Applications of SERRS.
5.7 The Basic Method.
CHAPTER 6: APPLICATIONS.
6.1 Introduction.
6.2 Inorganics and Minerals.
6.3 Art and Archaeology.
6.4 Polymers and Emulsions.
6.5 Colour.
6.6 Electronics Applications.
6.7 Biological and Pharmaceutical Applications.
6.8 Forensic Applications.
6.9 Plant Control and Reaction Following.
6.10 Summary.
CHAPTER 7: MORE ADVANCED RAMAN SCATTERING TECHNIQUES.
7.1 Flexible Optics.
7.2 Tuneable Lasers, Frequency Doubling and Pulsed Lasers.
7.3 Spatially Resolved Systems.
7.4 Nonlinear Raman Spectroscopy.
7.5 Time Resolved Scattering.
7.6 Raman Optical Activity.
7.7 UV Excitation.
7.8 Conclusions.
Index.