I. HISTORICAL ORIGINS.
A. The Just War Theory.
Cicero, On Duties.
Seneca, On Mercy.
Tertullian, “The Soldier’s Chaplet.”
Augustine, The City of God.
Averroes (Ibn Rushd), “Jihad.”
Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theologica.
B. The Natural Law of Nations.
Francisco Vitoria, On the Law of War.
Alberico Gentili, The Law of War.
Francisco Suarez, “On War.”
Hugo Grotius, On the Law of War and Peace.
Thomas Hobbes, Leviathan.
Samuel Pufendorf, On the Law of Nature and Nations.
C. The Moralists vs. The Realists.
Emer de Vattel, The Law of Nations or the Principles of Natural Law.
Immanuel Kant, “Perpetual Peace.”
Carl von Clausewitz, On the Art of War.
Henry David Thoreau, “On the Duty of Civil Disobedience.”
II. CONTEMPORARY MORAL FOUNDATIONS.
A. Pacifism and the Credibility of the Just War Tradition.
William James, “The Moral Equivalent of War.”
Jan Narveson, “Pacifism: A Philosophical Analysis.”
Stanley Hauerwas, “Pacifism: Some Philosophical Considerations.”
Robert Holmes, “Can War Be Morally Justified? The Just War Theory.”
John Yoder, When War is Unjust: Being Honest in Just War Thinking.
B. The Doctrine of Double Effect.
Joseph Boyle, “Toward Understanding the Principle of Double Effect.”
Warren Quinn, “Actions, Intentions, and Consequences: The Doctrine of Double Effect.”
Jonathan Bennett, “Morality and Consequences.”
Michael Walzer, “Double Effect and Double Intentions” from Just and Unjust Wars.
C. Absolutists and Consequentialists.
G.E.M. Anscombe, “War and Murder.”
George Mavrodes, “Conventions and the Morality of War.”
Thomas Nagel, “War and Massacre.”
Richard Brandt, “Utilitarianism and the Rules of War.”
Michael Walzer, Just and Unjust Wars.
David Rodin, War and Self-Defense.
David Luban, “Just War and Human Rights.”
Paul Woodruff, “Justification or Excuse: Saving Soldiers at the Expense of Civilians.”
III. RECENT APPLICATIONS.
Michael Walzer, “Terrorism: A Critique of Excuses.”
Robert Fullinwider, “Understanding Terrorism.”
Andrew Valls, “Can Terrorism be Justified?”
Joseph Boyle, “Just War Doctrine and the Military Response to Terrorism.”
B. Humanitarian Intervention.
David Luban, “The Romance of the Nation-State.”
Fernando Teson, “The Liberal Case for Humanitarian Intervention.”
Burleigh Wilkins, “Humanitarian Interventions: Some Doubts.”
George Lucas, “From jus ad bellum to jus ad pacem: Rethinking Just-War Criteria for the Use of Military force for Humanitarian Ends.”
C. Recent Armed Conflicts.
George Meggle, Is this War [in Kosovo] Good? An Ethical commentary.”
Miriam Sapiro, “Iraq: The Shifting Sands of Preemptive Self-Defense.”
William Galston, “The Perils of Preemptive War.”
David Luban, “The War on Terrorism and the End of Human Rights.”
D. After War.
R.M. Hare, “Can I Be Blamed for Obeying Orders?”
Larry May, “Superior Orders, Duress, and Moral Perception.”
David Cooper, “Collective Responsibility, ‘Moral Luck,’ and Reconciliation.”
Elizabeth Kiss, “Moral Ambition Within and Beyond Political Constraints: Reflections on Restorative Justice.”