Synopses & Reviews
This book describes one of our closest relatives, the orangutan, and the only extant great ape in Asia. It is increasingly clear that orangutan populations show extensive variation in behavioural ecology, morphology, life history, and genes. Indeed, on the strength of the latest genetic and morphological evidence, it has been proposed that orangutans actually constitute two species which diverged more than a million years ago - one on the island of Sumatra the other on Borneo, with the latter comprising three subspecies.
This book has two main aims. The first is to carefully compare data from every orangutan research site, examining the differences and similarities between orangutan species, subspecies, and populations. The second is to develop a theoretical framework in which these differences and similarities can be explained. To achieve these goals the editors have assembled the world's leading orangutan experts to rigorously synthesize and compare the data, quantify the similarities or differences, and seek to explain them.
Orangutans is the first synthesis of orangutan biology to adopt this novel, comparative approach. It analyses and compares the latest data, developing a theoretical framework to explain morphological, life history, and behavioural variation. Intriguingly, not all behavioural differences can be attributed to ecological variation between and within the two islands; relative rates of social learning also appear to have been influential. The book also emphasizes the crucial impact of human settlement on orangutans and looks ahead to the future prospects for the survival of critically endangered natural populations.
"This book is an impressive collaborative effort with over 70 authors contributing to a series of broad comparative chapters that document what we do and do not know about the similarities and differences among separate orangutan populations in many parts of Northern Sumatra and Borneo. This is behavioral ecology and evolutionary biology at its finest."--The Quarterly Review of Biology
About the Author
received his MSc in animal behaviour in 1995 at Utrecht University (the Netherlands) for which he conducted a study on food competition in wild Sumatran orangutans. In 2002, he received his PhD from the same university for a study on the structure and function of male Thomas langur long-distance vocalizations. In 2003, he started as a post-doc at Utrecht University to study 'cultural behaviour' of orangutans in two orangutans in two orangutan poplulations one on Sumatra and on on Borneo. Currently he is a visiting scientist at Great Ape Trust of Iowa from where he continues with field work on Sumatran orangutans and is currently also involved in studies on the orangutans and bonobos at Great Ape Trust.
S. Suci Utami Atmoko started conducting research on orangutans while at the Universitas Nasional in Jakarta where she received her BA for a study on female reproduction. She continued her orangutan research on male bimaturism research at Utrecht University where she obtained her PhD in 2000. Since then she has been involved in orangutan research and conservation activities in Borneo and Sumatra. She is currently a lecturer at Univeritas nasional (jakarta, Indonesia).
Tatang Mitra Setia started studying Indonesian primates in 1979 at the Ketambe research site. In 1988 he began his studies on social relationships of orangutans. In 1995 he received a MSc at Universitas Indonesia (Jakarta, Indonesia). He is involved in orangutan research on both Borneo and Sumatra and currently he is the Dean of the Biology Faculty of Universitas Nasional (Jakrta, Indonesia). Carel van Schaik has studied primates in Indonesia and elsewhere since 1976. He received his MSc at Utrecht University (the Netherlands) for a study on behavioral ontogeny in orangutans. In 1985 he obtained his PhD at the same unviersity for a study on the socioecology of long-tailed macaques. After a post-doc at Princeton University, he worked as a lectured at Utrecht University and later as a Professor at Duke University. He is interested in the social evolution of primates and currently studies orangutans at two sites in Indonesia. He is the author of a large number of scientific articles and has edited several books on topics ranging from male infanticide to primate conservaton. Currently he is professor at and the director of the Antropological Institute and Museum of the University of Zurich, Switzerland.
Table of Contents
Preface, Serge A. Wich, S. Suci Utami Atmoko, Tatang Mitra Setia, and Carel P. van Schaik
1. Taxonomy, geographic variation and population genetics of Bornean and Sumatran orangutans, Benoît Goossens et al
2. The functional significance of variation in jaw form in orangutans: The African apes as an ecogeographic model, Andrea B. Taylor
3. Orangutan positional behavior: inter-specific variation and ecological correlates, Suzannah K. S. Thorpe and Robin H. Crompton
4. A description of the orangutan's vocal and sound repertoire, with a focus on geographic variation, Madeleine E. Hardus et al
5. Orangutan life history variation, Serge A. Wich et al
6. Orangutan distribution, density, abundance and impacts of disturbance, Simon J. Husson et al
7. The effects of forest phenology and floristics on populations of Bornean and Sumatran orangutans: are Sumatran forests better orangutan habitat than Bornean forests?, Andrew J. Marshall et al
8. Orangutan activity budgets and diet: A comparison between species, populations and habitats, Helen C. Morrogh-Bernard et al
9. Geographic variation in orangutan diets, Anne E. Russon et al
10. Parasites and their impacts on orangutan health, Ivona Foitová et al
11. The ecology of female reproduction in wild orangutans, Cheryl D. Knott et al
12. Development of independence: Sumatran and Bornean orangutans compared, Maria A. van Noordwijk et al
13. Ranging behavior of orangutan females and social organization, Ian Singleton et al
14. Geographical variation in orangutan long calls, Roberto A. Delgado et al
15. Male-male relationships in orangutans, S Suci Utami Atmoko et al
16. Orangutan mating behavior and strategies, S. Suci Utami Atmoko et al
17. Social organization and male-female relationships, Tatang Mitra Setia et al
18. Ecological sex differences in wild orangutans, Carel P. van Schaik et al
19. Nest building in orangutans, Didik Prasetyo et al
20. Innovation and intelligence in orangutans, Anne E. Russon et al
21. Orangutan cultures revisited, Carel P. van Schaik et al
22. Orangutan population biology, life history, and conservation: Perspectives from PVA models, Andrew J. Marshall et al
23. Orangutan rehabilitation and reintroduction: Successes, failures, and role in conservation, Anne E. Russon
24. Geographic variation in orangutan behavior and biology: its functional interpretation and its mechanistic basis, Carel P. van Schaik, Andrew J. Marshall, and Serge A. Wich