Synopses & Reviews
With a collection of over 350 sources, each accompanied by an introductory essay and review questions, this two-volume primary source reader emphasizes the intellectual history and values of the Western tradition. Sources are grouped around important themes in European history--such as religion, education, and art and culture--so that readers can analyze and compare multiple documents. The Eighth Edition features additional sources by and about women, completely revised chapters on modern Europe and its place in the contemporary world, and updates to introductions and review questions.
With a collection of 300 sources, each accompanied by an introductory essay and review questions, this two-volume primary source reader emphasizes the intellectual history and values of the Western tradition. Sources are grouped around important themes in European history, allowing students to analyze and compare multiple documents. The Seventh Edition features additional sources by and about women, new attention to cultural and artistic documents, and updates to introductions and review questions.
With a collection of 300 sources--each accompanied by an introductory essay and review questions--this two-volume primary source reader emphasizes the history of ideas. The Sixth Edition features additional sources by and about women, as well as new attention to documents dealing with social and cultural issues. This reader works as an accompaniment to any Western Civilization course, but makes an ideal companion for Perry's Western Civilization, 7/e, or Western Civilization: A Brief History, 5/e.
About the Author
Marvin Perry, now retired, taught history at Baruch College, City University of New York. He has published several successful Cengage Learning texts, including WESTERN CIVILIZATION: IDEAS, POLITICS, AND SOCIETY (senior author and general editor); WESTERN CIVILIZATION: A BRIEF HISTORY; the leading Western Civilization reader, SOURCES OF THE WESTERN TRADITION; AN INTELLECTUAL HISTORY OF MODERN EUROPE; SOURCES OF EUROPEAN HISTORY SINCE 1900 (senior editor); HUMANITIES IN THE WESTERN TRADITION (senior author and general editor); and WORLD WAR II IN EUROPE: A CONCISE HISTORY. His scholarly work includes ARNOLD TOYNBEE AND THE WESTERN TRADITION (1996); coauthor of ANTISEMITISM: MYTH AND HATE FROM ANTIQUITY TO THE PRESENT (2002); coeditor of ANTISEMITIC MYTHS: A HISTORICAL AND CONTEMPORARY ANTHOLOGY (2008); and coeditor of THE THEORY AND PRACTICE OF ISLAMIC TERRORISM: AN ANTHOLOGY (2008). Dr. Perry's scholarly work focuses on the history of ideas.
Table of Contents
VOLUME I I. The Ancient World 1. The Near East 1. Mesopotamian Protest Against Death. "Epic of Gilgamesh" 2. Mesopotamian Concepts of Justice. Code of Hammurabi 3. Divine Kingship in Egypt. Hymns to the Pharaohs; Guidelines for the Ruler 4. Religious Inspiration of Akhenaten. Hymn to Aton 5. Love, Passion, and Misogyny in Ancient Egypt. Love Poetry; The Instruction of Ankhsheshonq 6. Empire Builders. The Assyrian Empire: Inscription of Tiglathpileser I; The Persian Empire, Inscriptions of Cyrus and Darius I 7. The Myth-making Outlook of the Ancient Near East. Personification of Natural Objects; Enuma Elish: The Babylonian Genesis; Lament for Ur: The Gods and Human Destiny 2. The Hebrews 1. Hebrew Cosmogony and Anthropology. Genesis 2. The Covenant and the Ten Commandments. Exodus: The Covenant; Exodus: The Ten Commandments 3. God's Greatness and Human Dignity. Psalm 8; Psalm 104 4. Humaneness of Hebrew Law. Leviticus: Neighbor and Community; Deuteronomy: Judges, Witnesses, and Justice 5. Human Sinfulness. Genesis: The Origins of Sin; Job: The Problem of Undeserved Suffering 6. The Age of Classical Prophecy. Amos and Isaiah: Social Justice; Isaiah: Peace and Humanity 3. The Greeks 1. Homer: The Educator of Greece. Homer: The Iliad 2. Lyric Poetry. Sappho: Love, Passion, and Friendship 3. The Expansion of Reason. Hippocrates: The Sacred Disease: The Separation of Medicine from Myth; Thucydides: Method of Historical Inquiry; Critias: Religion as a Human Invention 4. Humanism. Pindar: The Pursuit of Excellence; Sophocles: Lauding Human Talents 5. The Persian Wars. Herodotus: The Histories 6. Greek Drama. Aeschylus: The Persians: Hubris 7. Athenian Greatness. Thucydides: The Funeral Oration of Pericles 8. The Status of Women in Classical Greek Society. Euripides: Medea; Aristophanes: Lysistrata 9. The Peloponnesian War. Thucydides: The Melian Dialogue and The Revolution at Corcyra 10. Socrates: The Rational Individual. Plato: The Apology 11. Plato: The Philosopher-King. Plato: The Republic 12. Aristotle: Science, Politics, and Ethics. Aristotle: History of Animals, Politics, and Nicomachean Ethics 13. Hellenistic Culture: Universalism and Individualism. Plutarch: Cultural Fusion; Epicurus: Self-Sufficiency 14. Greek Culture and the Jews in the Hellenistic Age. First Book of Maccabees: Jewish Resistance to Forced Hellenization; Philo of Alexandria: Appreciation of Greek Culture and Synthesis of Reason and Revelation 4. The Roman Republic 1. Rome's March to World Empire. Polybius: The Roman Army 2. The Punic Wars. Livy: The Second Punic War: The Threat from Hannibal; Appian of Alexandria: The Third Punic War: The Destruction of Carthage 3. The Spread of Greek Philosophy to Rome. Lucretius: Denunciation of Religion; Cicero: Advocate of Stoicism; Cato the Elder: Hostility to Greek Philosophy 4. Roman Slavery. Diodorus Siculus: Slaves: Torment and Revolt; Appian of Alexandria: The Revolt of Spartacus 5. Women in Republican Society. Quintus Lucretius Vespillo: A Funeral Eulogy for a Roman Wife 6. The Decline of the Republic. Plutarch: Tiberius Gracchus; Cicero: Justifying Caesar's Assassination; Sallust: Moral Deterioration 5. The Roman Empire 1. The Imperial Office. Augustus: The Achievements of the Divine Augustus; Tacitus: The Imposition of One-Man Rule 2. Imperial Culture. Virgil: The Aeneid; Ovid: The Art of Love; Juvenal: The Satires; Quintilian: The Education of the Orator 3. Roman Stoicism. Seneca: The Moral Epistles; Marcus Aurelius: Meditations 4. Roman Law. Justinian: Corpus Iurius Civilis 5. Provincial Administration. Correspondence Between Pliny the Younger and Emperor Trajan 6. The Roman Peace. Aelius Aristides: The Roman Oration, The Blessings of the Pax Romana; Tacitus: The Other Side of the Pax Romana 7. Third-Century Crisis. Dio Cassius: Caracalla's Extortions; Petition to Emperor Phillip; Herodian: Extortions of Maximinus 8. The Demise of Rome. Ammianus Marcellinus: The Battle of Adrianople; Salvian: Political and Social Injustice; Saint Jerome: The Fate of Rome; Pope Gregory I: The End of Roman Glory 6. Early Christianity 1. The Teachings of Jesus. The Gospel According to Saint Mark; The Gospel According to Saint Matthew 2. Christianity and Greco-Roman Learning. Tertullian: What Has Jerusalem to Do with Athens?; Clement of Alexandria: In Defense of Greek Learning; Saint Augustine: Appropriating Pagan Learning and Institutions for Christian Ends 3. The Persecutions. Persecutions at Lyons and Vienne 4. Monastic Life. Saint Jerome: The Agony of Solitude in the Desert; Cassian of Marseilles: On the Dangers and Fruits of Solitude; Saint Benedict of Nursia: The Benedictine Rule 5. Christianity and Society. Lactantius: Acquisitiveness as the Source of Evil; Saint Benedict of Nursia: The Christian Way of Life; Athenagoras: Sexuality and Family Life; The Apostle Paul: The Submissive Role of Women 6. Christian Demonization of Jews. Saint John Chrysostom: Discourses Against Judaizing Christians 7. The Christian World-View. Saint Augustine: The City of God II. The Middle Ages 7. The Early Middle Ages 1. The Byzantine Cultural Achievement. Theophylact Simocattes: The Value of Reason and History; Procopius: The Building of Haghia Sophia 2. Islam. Muhammad: The Koran 3. Muslim Relations with Christians and Jews. Legal Texts and Decrees: Restrictions on Dhimmis 4. Islam and Greek Learning. Avicenna: Love of Learning 5. Converting the Germanic Peoples to Christianity. Bede: History of the English Church and People; Einhard: Forcible Conversion Under Charlemagne 6. The Transmission of Learning. Cassiodorus: The Monk as Scribe 7. The Carolingian Renaissance. Einhard: Charlemagne's Appreciation of Learning; Charlemagne: An Injunction to Monasteries to Cultivate Letters 8. The Feudal Lord: Vassal and Warrior. Galbert of Bruges: Commendation and the Oath of Fealty; Fulbert, Bishop of Chartres: Obligations of Lords and Vassals; Bertran de Born: In Praise of Combat 9. The Burdens of Serfdom. Bishop Adalbero of Laon: The Tripartite Society; Ralph Glaber, Monk of Cluny: Famine; William of Jumièges and Wace: Failed Rebellion 8. The High and Late Middle Ages 1. The Revival of Trade and the Growth of Towns. How to Succeed in Business; Ordinances of the Guild Merchant of Southampton 2. Papal Supremacy. Pope Gregory VII: The Dictatus Papae; Pope Innocent III: "Royal Power Derives Its Dignity from the Pontifical Authority" 3. The Crusades. Robert the Monk: Appeal of Urban II to the Franks; William of Tyre: The Capture of Jerusalem; James of Vitry: "The Remission of Sins and the Reward of Eternal Life" 4. Religious Dissent. Bernard Gui: The Waldensian Teachings 5. Medieval Learning: Synthesis of Reason and Christian Faith. Peter Abelard: Inquiry into Divergent Views of Church Fathers; Saint Thomas Aquinas: Summa Theologica 6. Medieval Universities. Geoffrey Chaucer: An Oxford Cleric; Student Letters; A Wandering Scholar: "In the Tavern Let Me Die" 7. The Jews in the Middle Ages. Albert of Aix-la-Chapelle: Massacre of the Jews of Mainz; A Decree by Pope Innocent III; The Libel of Ritual Murder; Maimonides: Jewish Learning 8. Troubadour Love Songs. Love as Joyous, Painful, and Humorous 9. The Status of Women in Medieval Society. Jacopone da Todi: Praise of the Virgin Mary: "O Thou Mother, Fount of Love"; Christine de Pisan: The City of Ladies; A Merchant of Paris: On Love and Marriage 10. Sexual Nonconformity: Satan's Lures. Robert of Flamborough: Prohibition of Sexual Sins; Peter Damian: Condemnation of Homosexuality 11. Medieval Contributions to the Tradition of Liberty. John of Salisbury: Policraticus: A Defense of Tyrannicide; Magna Carta 12. The Fourteenth Century: An Age of Adversity. Jean de Venette: The Black Death; Sir John Froissart: The Peasant Revolt of 1381; John Wycliffe: Concerning the Pope's Power; Marsilius of Padua: Attack on the Worldly Power of the Church 13. The Medieval World-View. Lothario dei Segni (Pope Innocent III): On the Misery of the Human Condition; The Vanity of This World; Dante Alighieri: The Divine Comedy III. Early Modern Europe 9. The Renaissance 1. The Humanists' Fascination with Antiquity. Petrarch: The Father of Humanism; Leonardo Bruni: Study of Greek Literature and a Humanist Educational Program 2. Human Dignity. Pico della Mirandola: Oration on the Dignity of Man 3. Break with Medieval Political Theory. Niccolò Machiavelli: The Prince 4. The Ideal Gentleman. Baldassare Castiglione: The Book of the Courtier 5. Renaissance Art and Science. Leonardo da Vinci: Observation and Mathematical Perspective; Leonardo on His Own Genius 6. The Spread of the Renaissance. François Rabelais: Celebration of the Worldly Life; William Shakespeare: Human Nature and the Human Condition 10. The Reformation 1. A Catholic Critic of the Church. Desiderius Erasmus: In Praise of Folly 2. The Lutheran Reformation. Martin Luther: On Papal Power, Justification by Faith, the Interpretation of the Bible, and The Nature of the Clergy; Ulrich von Hutten: Resentment of Rome 3. The German Peasants' Revolt. The Twelve Articles; Martin Luther: Against the Peasants 4. Luther and the Jews. Martin Luther: On the Jews and Their Lies 5. The Calvinist Reformation. John Calvin: The Institutes of the Christian Religion 6. The Catholic Response to Protestantism. Canons and Decrees of the Council of Trent 7. Religious Persecution. Chronicle of King Francis I: Burning of Protestants in Paris; The Persecution of Anabaptists: The Examination of Elizabeth Dirks; Menno Simons: An Anabaptist Rejection of the Use of Force 11. Early Modern Society and Politics 1. The Age of Exploration and Conquest. Bernal Diaz del Castillo: The Discovery and Conquest of Mexico 2. Spanish Oppression of the Amerindians. Bartolome de Las Casas: The Tears of the Indians 3. Toward the Modern Economy: The Example of Holland. William Carr: The Dutch East India Company 4. The Jews of Spain and Portugal: Expulsion, Forced Conversion, Inquisition. Proceedings of the Spanish Inquisition: The Torture of Elvira del Campo; Damião de Gois: The Forced Conversion of the Portuguese Jews 5. The Atlantic Slave Trade. Seventeenth-Century Slave Traders: Buying and Transporting Africans; Malachy Postlethwayt: Slavery Defended; John Wesley: Thoughts Upon Slavery; Olaudah Equiano: Memoirs of a Former Slave 6. The Witch Craze. Jakob Sprenger and Heinrich Krämer: The Hammer of Witches; Johannes Junius: A Confession of Witchcraft Explained; Nicholas Malebranche: Search After Truth 7. The Court of Louis XIV. Duc de Saint-Simon: An Assessment of Louis XIV; Liselotte von der Pfalz (Elizabeth Charlotte d'Orleans): A Sketch of Court Life 8. Justification of Absolute Monarchy by Divine Right. Bishop Jaques-Benigne Bossuet: Politics Drawn from the Very Words of Holy Scripture; James I: True Law of Free Monarchies and A Speech to Parliament 9. A Secular Defense of Absolutism. Thomas Hobbes: Leviathan 10. The Triumph of Constitutional Monarchy in England: The Glorious Revolution. The English Declaration of Rights 12. The Scientific Revolution 1. The Copernican Revolution. Cardinal Bellarmine: Attack on the Copernican Theory 2. Expanding the New Astronomy. Galileo Galilei: The Starry Messenger 3. Critique of Authority. Galileo Galilei: Letter to the Grand Duchess Christina and Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems--Ptolemaic and Copernican; Galileo Before the Inquisition 4. Prophet of Modern Science. Francis Bacon: Attack on Authority and Advocacy of Experimental Science 5. The Circulation of the Blood: Validating the Empirical Method. William Harvey: The Motion of the Heart and Blood in Animals 6. The Autonomy of the Mind. Rene Descartes: Discourse on Method 7. The Mechanical Universe. Isaac Newton: Principia Mathematica 13. The Enlightenment 1. The Enlightenment Outlook. Immanuel Kant: What Is Enlightenment? 2. Political Liberty. John Locke: Second Treatise on Government; Thomas Jefferson: Declaration of Independence 3. Attack on Religion. Voltaire: A Plea for Tolerance and Reason; Thomas Paine: The Age of Reason; Baron d'Holbach: Good Sense 4. Epistemology and Education. John Locke: Essay Concerning Human Understanding; John Locke: Some Thoughts Concerning Education; Claude Helvetius: Essays on the Mind and A Treatise on Man; Jean-Jacques Rousseau Émile 5. Compendium of Knowledge. Denis Diderot: Encyclopedia 6. Rousseau: Political Reform. Jean-Jacques Rousseau: The Social Contract 7. Humanitarianism. Caesare Beccaria: On Crimes and Punishments; John Howard: Prisons in England and Wales; Denis Diderot: Encyclopedia: "Men and Their Liberty Are Not Objects of Commerce..."; Marquis de Condorcet: The Evils of Slavery 8. Literature as Satire: Critiques of European Society. Voltaire: Candide; Denis Diderot: Supplement to the Voyage of Bouganville; Montesquieu: The Persian Letters 9. On the Progress of Humanity. Marquis de Condorcet: Progress of the Human Mind VOLUME II I. Early Modern Europe 1. The Rise of Modernity 1. The Humanists' Fascination with Antiquity. Petrarch: The Father of Humanism; Leonardo Bruni: Study of Greek Literature and A Humanist Educational Program 2. Human Dignity. Pico della Mirandola: Oration on the Dignity of Man 3. Break with Medieval Political Theory. Niccolò Machiavelli: The Prince 4. The Lutheran Reformation. Martin Luther: On Papal Power, Justification by Faith, the Interpretation of the Bible, and The Nature of the Clergy 5. Justification of Absolute Monarchy by Divine Right. Bishop Jacques-Benigne Bossuet: Politics Drawn from the Very Words of Holy Scripture; James I: True Law of Free Monarchies and A Speech to Parliament 6. A Secular Defense of Absolutism. Thomas Hobbes: Leviathan 7. The Triumph of Constitutional Monarchy in England: The Glorious Revolution. The English Declaration of Rights 2. The Scientific Revolution 1. The Copernican Revolution. Cardinal Bellarmine: Attack on the Copernican Theory 2. Expanding the New Astronomy. Galileo Galilei: The Starry Messenger 3. Critique of Authority. Galileo Galilei: Letter to the Grand Duchess Christina and Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems--Ptolemaic and Copernican; Galileo Before the Inquisition 4. Prophet of Modern Science. Francis Bacon: Attack on Authority and Advocacy of Experimental Science 5. The Circulation of the Blood: Validating the Empirical Method. William Harvey: The Motion of the Heart and Blood in Animals 6. The Autonomy of the Mind. Rene Descartes: Discourse on Method 7. The Mechanical Universe. Isaac Newton: Principia Mathematica 3. The Enlightenment 1. The Enlightenment Outlook. Immanuel Kant: What Is Enlightenment? 2. Political Liberty. John Locke: Second Treatise on Government; Thomas Jefferson: Declaration of Independence 3. Attack on Religion. Voltaire: A Plea for Tolerance and Reason; Thomas Paine: The Age of Reason; Baron d'Holbach: Good Sense 4. Epistemology and Education. John Locke: Essay Concerning Human Understanding; John Locke: Some Thoughts Concerning Education; Claude Helvetius: Essays on the Mind and A Treatise on Man; Jean-Jacques Rousseau Émile 5. Compendium of Knowledge. Denis Diderot: Encyclopedia 6. Rousseau: Political Reform. Jean-Jacques Rousseau: The Social Contract 7. Humanitarianism. Caesare Beccaria: On Crimes and Punishments; John Howard: Prisons in England and Wales; Denis Diderot: Encyclopedia: "Men and Their Liberty Are Not Objects of Commerce..."; Marquis de Condorcet: The Evils of Slavery 8. Literature as Satire: Critiques of European Society. Voltaire: Candide; Denis Diderot: Supplement to the Voyage of Bouganville; Montesquieu: The Persian Letters 9. On the Progress of Humanity. Marquis de Condorcet: Progress of the Human Mind II. Modern Europe 4. Era of the French Revolution 1. Abuses of the Old Regime. Grievances of the Third Estate; Emmanuel Sieyès: Bourgeois Disdain for Special Privileges of the Aristocracy 2. The Role of the Philosophes. Alexis de Tocqueville: Critique of the Old Regime 3. Liberty, Equality, Fraternity. Declaration of the Rights of Man and of Citizens 4. Expansion of Human Rights. Mary Wollstonecraft: Vindication of the Rights of Woman; Society of the Friends of Blacks: Address to the National Assembly in Favor of the Abolition of the Slave Trade; Petition of the Jews of Paris, Alsace, and Lorraine to the National Assembly, January 28, 1790 5. The Jacobin Regime. Maximilien Robespierre: Republic of Virtue; General Louis de Lignieres Turreau: Uprising in the Vendee 6. Napoleon: Destroyer and Preserver of the Revolution. Napoleon Bonaparte: Leader, General, Tyrant, Reformer 5. The Industrial Revolution 1. Early Industrialization. Edward Baines: Britain's Industrial Advantages and the Factory System; Adam Smith: The Division of Labor 2. The New Science of Political Economy. Adam Smith: The Wealth of Nations; Thomas R. Malthus: On the Principle of Population 3. The Dark Side of Industrialization. Sadler Commission: Report on Child Labor; James Phillips Kay: Moral and Physical Dissipation 4. Factory Discipline. Factory Rules 5. The Capitalist Ethic. Samuel Smiles: Self-Help and Thrift 6. Reformers. Robert Owen: A New View of Society; William Lovett: The Rotten House of Commons 6. Romanticism, Reaction, Revolution 1. Romanticism. William Wordsworth: Tables Turned; William Blake: Milton; Bettina Brentano von Arnim: Beethoven 2. Conservatism. Edmund Burke: Reflections on the Revolution in France; Klemens von Metternich: The Odious Ideas of the Philosophes; Joseph de Maistre: Essay on the Generative Principle of Political Constitutions 3. Liberalism. John Stuart Mill: On Liberty 4. Rise of Modern Nationalism. Ernst Moritz Arndt: The War of Liberation; Giuseppe Mazzini: Young Italy 5. 1848: The Year of Revolutions. Flora Tristan: "Workers, Your Condition...Is Miserable and Distressing"; Alexis de Tocqueville: The June Days; Carl Schurz: Revolution Spreads to the German States 7. Thought and Culture in an Age of Science and Industry 1. Realism in Literature. Charles Dickens: Hard Times; Henrik Ibsen: A Doll's House 2. Theory of Evolution. Charles Darwin: Natural Selection 3. The Socialist Revolution. Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels: Communist Manifesto 4. The Evolution of Liberalism. L. T. Hobhouse: Justification for State Intervention; Herbert Spencer: The Man Versus the State 8. Politics and Society, 1845-1914 1. The Irish Potato Famine. Poulett Scrope: Evictions; Nicholas Cummins: The Famine in Skibbereen 2. The Lower Classes. Jeanne Bouvier: The Pains of Poverty; Nikolaus Osterroth: The Yearning for Social Justice; William Booth: In Darkest England 3. Prostitution. Henry Mayhew: Prostitution in Victorian London; William W. Sanger: Prostitution in Hamburg 4. Feminism and Antifeminism. John Stuart Mill: The Subjection of Women; Emmeline Pankhurst: Why We Are Militant; Hubertine Auclert: La Citoyenne; The Goncourt Brothers: On Female Inferiority; Almroth E. Wright: The Unexpurgated Case Against Woman Suffrage 5. German Racial Nationalism. Houston Stewart Chamberlain: The Importance of Race; Pan-German League: "There Are Dominant Races and Subordinate Races" 6. Anti-Semitism: Regression to the Irrational. Hermann Ahlwardt: The Semitic Versus the Teutonic Race; Édouard Drumont: Jewish France; The Dreyfus Affair: The Henry Monument; Theodor Herzl: The Jewish State 9. European Imperialism 1. The Spirit of British Imperialism. Cecil Rhodes: Confession of Faith; Joseph Chamberlain: The British Empire: Colonial Commerce and "The White Man's Burden"; Karl Pearson: Social Darwinism: Imperialism Justified by Nature 2. German Imperialism: "A Place in the Sun." Friedrich Fabri: Does Germany Need Colonies? 3. European Rule in Africa. Cecil Rhodes and Lo Bengula: "I Had Signed Away the Mineral Rights of my Whole Country"; Winston S. Churchill: The Battle of Omdurman; The Casement Report: "We Are Killed by the Work You Make Us Do"; Richard Meinertzhagen: An Embattled Colonial Officer in East Africa; German Brutality in Southwest Africa, Exterminating the Herero 4. Imperialism Debated. The Edinburgh Review: "We Can Restore Order Where There Is Chaos, and Fertility Where There Is Sterility"; John Atkinson Hobson: An Early Critique of Imperialism 10. Modern Consciousness 1. The Futility of Reason and the Power of the Will. Fyodor Dostoyevsky: Notes from Underground 2. The Overman and the Will to Power. Friedrich Nietzsche: The Will to Power and The Antichrist 3. The Unconscious. Sigmund Freud: The Unconscious and Civilization and Its Discontents 4. The Political Potential of the Irrational. Gustave Le Bon: Mass Psychology 5. Human Irrationality in the Modernist Novel. Joseph Conrad: Heart of Darkness 6. Modern Art and the Questioning of Western Values. Filippo Tommaso Marinetti: Manifesto of Futurism III. Western Civilization in Crisis 11. World War I 1. Militarism. Heinrich von Treitschke: The Greatness of War; Friedrich von Bernhardi: Germany and the Next War 2. Pan-Serbism: Nationalism and Terrorism. The Black Hand; Baron von Giesl: Austrian Response to the Assassination" 3. British Fear of German Power. Eyre Crowe: Germany's Yearning for Expansion and Power 4. War as Celebration: The Mood in European Capitals. Roland Doregelès: Paris: "That Fabulous Day"; Stefan Zweig: Vienna: "The Rushing Feeling of Fraternity"; Philipp Scheidemann: Berlin: "The Hour We Yearned For"; Bertrand Russell: London: "Average Men and Women Were Delighted at the Prospect of War" 5. Trench Warfare. Erich Maria Remarque: All Quiet on the Western Front; Siegfried Sassoon: Base Details; Wilfred Owen: Disabled 6. The Paris Peace Conference. Woodrow Wilson: The Idealistic View; Georges Clemenceau: French Demands for Security and Revenge 7. The Bolshevik Revolution. Army Intelligence Report: The Breakdown of Military Discipline; N. N. Sukhanov: Trotsky Arouses the People; V. I. Lenin: The Call to Power 8. The War and European Consciousness. Paul Valery: Disillusionment; Erich Maria Remarque: The Lost Generation; Ernst von Salomon: Brutalization of the Individual; Sigmund Freud: A Legacy of Embitterment 12. Era of Totalitarianism 1. Modernize or Perish. Joseph Stalin: The Hard Line 2. Forced Collectivization. Joseph Stalin: Liquidation of the Kulaks; Lev Kopelev: Terror in the Countryside 3. Famine in Ukraine. Miron Dolot: Execution by Hunger 4. Soviet Indoctrination. A. O. Avdienko: The Cult of Stalin; Yevgeny Yevtushenko: Literature as Propaganda 5. Stalin's Terror. Nikita Khrushchev: Khrushchev's Secret Speech; Lev Razgon: True Stories 6. The Rise of Italian Fascism. Benito Mussolini: Fascist Doctrines 7. The Rise of Nazism. Adolf Hitler: Mein Kampf; Kurt G. W. Ludecke: The Demagogic Orator; Thomas Mann: An Appeal to Reason 8. The Leader-State. Ernst Rudolf Huber: "The Authority of the Führer Is... All-Inclusive and Unlimited" 9. The Nazification of Culture and Society. Johannes Stark: "Jewish Science" Versus "German Science"; Jakob Graf: Hereditary and Racial Biology for Students; Louis P. Lochner: Book Burning; Joseph Roth: "The Auto-Da-Fe of the Mind" 10. Persecution of the Jews. Hertha Nathorff: A German Jewish Doctor's Diary; Marta Appel: Memoirs of a German Jewish Woman; David H. Buffum: Night of the Broken Glass (Kristallnacht) 11. The Anguish of the Intellectuals. Johan Huizinga: In the Shadow of Tomorrow; Nicolas Berdyaev: Modern Ideologies at Variance with Christianity 13. World War II 1. Prescient Observers of Nazi Germany. Horace Rumbold: "Pacifism Is the Deadliest of Sins"; George S. Messersmith: "The Nazis Were After . . . Unlimited Territorial Expansion" 2. Remilitarization of the Rhineland. William L. Shirer: Berlin Diary 3. The Anschluss, March 1938. Stefan Zweig: The World of Yesterday 4. The Munich Agreement. Neville Chamberlain: In Defense of Appeasement; Winston Churchill: "A Disaster of the First Magnitude" 5. World War II Begins. Adolf Hitler: "Poland Will Be Depopulated and Settled with Germans" 6. The Fall of France. Heinz Guderian: "French Leadership . . . Could Not Grasp the Significance of the Tank in Mobile Warfare" 7. The Battle of Britain. Winston Churchill: "Blood, Toil, Tears, and Sweat" 8. Nazi Propaganda: For Volk, Führer, and Fatherland. The Indoctrination of the German Soldier 9. Stalingrad: A Turning Point. William Hoffman: Diary of a German Soldier; Anton Kuzmich Dragan: A Soviet Veteran Recalls; Joachim Wieder: Memories and Reassessments 10. The Holocaust. Hermann Graebe: Slaughter of Jews in Ukraine; Rudolf Hoess: Commandant of Auschwitz; Y. Pfeffer: Concentration Camp Life and Death 11. D-Day, June 6, 1944. Historical Division, War Department: Omaha Beachhead 12. The End of the Third Reich. Nerin E. Gun: The Liberation of Dachau; Joseph Goebbels: "The Morale of the German People, Both at Home and at the Front, Is Sinking Ever Lower"; Marie Neumann: "We're in the Hands of a Mob, Not Soldiers, and They're All Drunk Out of Their Minds"; Adolf Hitler: Political Testament 13. The Defeat of Japan. Colonel Hiromichi Yahara: The Battle for Okinawa 14. The Nazi Era and Western Consciousness. Ernst Cassirer: The Myth of the State 14. Western Europe: The Dawn of a New Era 1. The Aftermath: Devastation and Demoralization. Stephen Spender: European Witness; Bruno Foa: Europe in Ruins 2. The Cold War. Winston Churchill: The "Iron Curtain"; Nikita S. Khrushchev: Report to the Twentieth Party Congress 3. Communist Repression. Milovan Djilas: The New Class; Andor Heller: The Hungarian Revolution, 1956 4. Germany Confronts Its Past. Hannah Vogt: The Burden of Guilt; Richard von Weizsäcker: "We Seek Reconciliation" 5. Reversing Britain's Economic Decline. Margaret Thatcher: The Free Market Versus State Intervention IV. The Contemporary World 15. The West in an Age of Globalism 1. The Collapse of Communism. Vaclav Havel: The Failure of Communism 2. Globalization: Patterns and Problems. Fareed Zakaria: "Democracy Has Its Dark Sides"; Amy Chua: "Free Market Democracy Breeds Ethnic Hatred and Global Instability" 3. Female Oppression. United Nations Secretary-General: Ending Violence Against Women: "The Systematic Domination of Women by Men" 4. Radical Islamic Terrorists. Abbas Amanat: "Empowered Through Violence: The Reinvention of Islamic Extremism"; Mary Habeck: Jihadist Ideology