and#8220;Hereand#8217;s the physical world of plants in all its splendorand#8212;and multidimensionalityand#8212;brought to bear on the rich diversity of both extant and extinct forms. Niklas and Spatzand#8217;s theme, which deserves attention, is that since plants (and animals, of course) cannot change physics, physical laws and processes must bear strongly on the course of their evolution.and#8221;
and#8220;Karl J. Niklas and Hanns-Christof Spatz have written a remarkable book, unique in the field of biomechanics. Starting from basic physical principles, it explains a wide range of phenomena in plants, from fluid transport to the dispersal of seeds in air and water to structural behavior. The experimental and theoretical tools described provide a useful primer. A valuable reference for researchers interested in how plants work from a physical perspective.and#8221;
and#8220;[A]n interesting interdisciplinary glimpse into the physics of plant biology. . . . A useful resource for advanced courses in botany, plant physiology, and biophysics. Recommended.and#8221;
and#8220;There is no better way to learn about plants than studying physics and to learn physics than studying plants. This book does just so. In a comprehensive but not overwhelming manner, the authors provide an overview of carefully selected topics that beautifully link descriptions of plant physiological and cellular activity with explanations of the physical forces that shape plant structure and function. . . . I enjoyed reading this volume and would recommend it as a valuable addition to the bookshelves in all plant biology or physics graduate rooms and for all plant biology or physics teachers.and#8221;
“Brilliant. . . . This is truly a lovely book.” Maciej Zwieniecki, Harvard University - Quarterly Review of Biology
and#8220;Brilliant. . . . This is truly a lovely book.and#8221;
andldquo;A significant addition to the literature on plant structure. Plant Physics presents a comprehensive overview of the physics relevant to the structural economy of land plants. . . . For the plant biologist, this book will be an invaluable reference for many years. For the physicist, the attraction of this book may be the breadth of topics covered and the implication that physics lies at the very heart of plant developmental biology.andrdquo;
PrefaceAcknowledgmentsRecommended ReadingFrequently Used Symbols
CHAPTER 1. An Introduction to Some Basic Concepts
and#160;1.1 What is plant physics?
and#160;1.2 The importance of plants
BOX 1.1 The amount of organic carbon produced annually
and#160;1.3 A brief history of plant life
and#160;1.4 A brief review of vascular plant ontogeny
and#160;1.5 Plant reproduction
and#160;1.6 Compromise and adaptive evolution
BOX 1.2 Photosynthetic efficiency versus mechanical stability
and#160;1.7 Elucidating function from form
and#160;1.8 The basic plant body plans
and#160;1.9 The importance of multicellularity
CHAPTER 2. Environmental Biophysics
and#160;2.1 Three transport laws
and#160;2.2 Boundary layers
and#160;2.3 Living in water versus air
BOX 2.1 Passive diffusion of carbon dioxide in the boundary layer in air and in water
and#160;2.4 Light interception and photosynthesis
BOX 2.2 Absorption of light by chloroplasts
BOX 2.3 Formulas for the effective light absorption cross section of some geometric objects
BOX 2.4 Modeling light interception in canopies
and#160;2.5 Phototropism
and#160;2.6 Mechanoperception
and#160;2.7 Thigmomorphogenesis
and#160;2.8 Gravitropism
and#160;2.9 Root growth, root anchorage, and soil properties
CHAPTER 3. Plant Water Relations
and#160;3.1 The roles of water acquisition and conservation
and#160;3.2 Some physical properties of water
and#160;3.3 Vapor pressure and Raoultand#8217;s law
and#160;3.4 Chemical potential and osmotic pressure
and#160;3.5 Water potential
and#160;3.6 Turgor pressure and the volumetric elastic modulus
and#160;3.7 Flow through tubes and the Hagen-Poiseuille equation
and#160;3.8 The cohesion-tension theory and the ascent of water
and#160;3.9 Phloem and phloem loading
CHAPTER 4. The Mechanical Behavior of Materials
and#160;4.1 Types of forces and their components
and#160;4.2 Strains
and#160;4.3 Different responses to applied forces
and#160;4.4 A note of caution about normal stresses and strains
and#160;4.5 Extension to three dimensions
and#160;4.6 Poisson's ratios
BOX 4.1 Poissonand#8217;s ratio for an incompressible fluid
BOX 4.2 Poissonand#8217;s ratio for a cell
and#160;4.7 Isotropic and anisotropic materials
and#160;4.8 Shear stresses and strains
and#160;4.9 Interrelation between normal stresses and shear stresses
and#160;4.10 Nonlinear elastic behavior
and#160;4.11 Viscoelastic materials
and#160;4.12 Plastic deformation
and#160;4.13 Strength
and#160;4.14 Fracture mechanics
and#160;4.15 Toughness, work of fracture, and fracture toughness
and#160;4.16 Composite materials and structures
and#160;4.17 The Cook-Gordon mechanism
CHAPTER 5. The Effects of Geometry, Shape, and Size
and#160;5.1 Geometry and shape are not the same things
and#160;5.2 Pure bending
and#160;5.3 The second moment of area
and#160;5.4 Simple bending
BOX 5.1 Bending of slender cantilevers
BOX 5.2 Three-point-bending of slender beams
and#160;5.5 Bending and shearing
BOX 5.3 Bending and shearing of a cantilever
BOX 5.4 Bending and shearing of a simply supported beam
BOX 5.5 The influence of the microfibrillar angle on the stiffness of a cell
and#160;5.6 Fracture in bending
and#160;5.7 Torsion
and#160;5.8 Static loads
BOX 5.6 Comparison of forces on a tree trunk resulting from self-loading with those experienced in bending
and#160;5.9 The constant stress hypothesis
BOX 5.7 Predictions for the geometry of a tree trunk obeying the constant stress hypothesis
and#160;5.10 Euler buckling
and#160;5.11 Hollow stems and Brazier buckling
and#160;5.12 Dynamics, oscillation, and oscillation bending
BOX 5.8 Derivation of eigenfrequencies
CHAPTER 6. Fluid Mechanics
and#160;6.1 What are fluids ?
BOX 6.1 The Navier-Stokes equations
and#160;6.2 The Reynolds number
and#160;6.3 Flow and drag at small Reynolds numbers
BOX 6.2 Derivation of the Hagen-Poiseuille equation
and#160;6.4 Flow of ideal fluids
and#160;6.5 Boundary layers and flow of real fluids
BOX 6.3 Vorticity
and#160;6.6 Turbulent flow
BOX 6.4 Turbulent stresses and friction velocities
and#160;6.7 Drag in real fluids
and#160;6.8 Drag and flexibility
and#160;6.9 Vertical velocity profiles
and#160;6.10 Terminal settling velocity
and#160;6.11 Fluid dispersal of reproductive structures
CHAPTER 7. Plant Electrophysiology
and#160;7.1 The principle of electroneutrality
and#160;7.2 The Nernst-Planck equation
and#160;7.3 Membrane potentials
BOX 7.1 The Goldman equation
and#160;7.4 Ion channels and ion pumps
BOX 7.2 The Ussing-Teorell equation
and#160;7.5 Electrical currents and gravisensitivity
and#160;7.6 Action potentials
and#160;7.7 Electrical signaling in plants
CHAPTER 8. A Synthesis: The Properties of Selected Plant Materials, Cells, and Tissues
and#160;8.1 The plant cuticle
and#160;8.2 A brief introduction to the primary cell wall
BOX 8.1 Cell wall stress and expansion resulting from turgor
and#160;8.3 The plasmalemma and cell wall deposition
and#160;8.4 The epidermis and the tissue tension hypothesis
and#160;8.5 Hydrostatic tissues
BOX 8.2 Stresses in thick-walled cylinders
BOX 8.3 Compression of spherical turgid cells
and#160;8.6 Nonhydrostatic cells and tissues
and#160;8.7 Cellular solids
and#160;8.8 Tissue stresses and growth stresses
and#160;8.9 Secondary growth and reaction wood
and#160;8.10 Wood as an engineering material
CHAPTER 9. Experimental Tools
and#160;9.1 Anatomical methods on a microscale
and#160;9.2 Mechanical measuring techniques on a macroscale
and#160;9.3 Mechanical measuring techniques on a microscale
and#160;9.4 Scholander pressure chamber
and#160;9.5 Pressure probe
and#160;9.6 Recording of electric potentials and electrical currents
and#160;9.7 Patch clamp techniques
and#160;9.8 Biomimetics
BOX 9.1 An example of applied biomechanics: Tree risk assessment
CHAPTER 10. Theoretical Tools
and#160;10.1 Modeling
and#160;10.2 Morphology: The problematic nature of structure-function relationships
and#160;10.3 Theoretical morphology, optimization, and adaptation
and#160;10.4 Size, proportion, and allometry
BOX 10.1 Comparison of regression parameters
and#160;10.5 Finite element methods (FEM)
and#160;10.6 Optimization techniques
BOX 10.2 Optimal allocation of biological resources
BOX 10.3 Lagrange multipliers and Murrayand#8217;s law
Glossary
Author index
Subject index