Since publication of the second edition, there have been extensive changes in the algorithms, methods, and assumptions in energy management systems that analyze and control power generation. This edition is updated to acquaint electrical engineering students and professionals with current power generation systems. Algorithms and methods for solving integrated economic, network, and generating system analysis are provided. Also included are the state-of-the-art topics undergoing evolutionary change, including market simulation, multiple market analysis, multiple interchange contract analysis, contract and market bidding, and asset valuation under various portfolio combinations.
Preface to the Third Edition xvii
Preface to the Second Edition xix
Preface to the First Edition xxi
Acknowledgment xxiii
1 Introduction 1
1.1 Purpose of the Course / 1
1.2 Course Scope / 2
1.3 Economic Importance / 2
1.4 Deregulation: Vertical to Horizontal / 3
1.5 Problems: New and Old / 3
1.6 Characteristics of Steam Units / 6
1.7 Renewable Energy / 22
APPENDIX 1A Typical Generation Data / 26
APPENDIX 1B Fossil Fuel Prices / 28
APPENDIX 1C Unit Statistics / 29
References for Generation Systems / 31
Further Reading / 31
2 Industrial Organization, Managerial Economics, and Finance 35
2.1 Introduction / 35
2.2 Business Environments / 36
2.3 Theory of the Firm / 40
2.4 Competitive Market Solutions / 42
2.5 Supplier Solutions / 45
2.6 Cost of Electric Energy Production / 53
2.7 Evolving Markets / 54
2.8 Multiple Company Environments / 58
2.9 Uncertainty and Reliability / 61
PROBLEMS / 61
Reference / 62
3 Economic Dispatch of Thermal Units and Methods of Solution 63
3.1 The Economic Dispatch Problem / 63
3.2 Economic Dispatch with Piecewise Linear Cost Functions / 68
3.3 LP Method / 69
3.4 The Lambda Iteration Method / 73
3.5 Economic Dispatch Via Binary Search / 76
3.6 Economic Dispatch Using Dynamic Programming / 78
3.7 Composite Generation Production Cost Function / 81
3.8 Base Point and Participation Factors / 85
3.9 Thermal System Dispatching with Network Losses Considered / 88
3.10 The Concept of Locational Marginal Price (LMP) / 92
3.11 Auction Mechanisms / 95
APPENDIX 3A Optimization Within Constraints / 106
APPENDIX 3B Linear Programming (LP) / 117
APPENDIX 3C Non-Linear Programming / 128
APPENDIX 3D Dynamic Programming (DP) / 128
APPENDIX 3E Convex Optimization / 135
PROBLEMS / 138
References / 146
4 Unit Commitment 147
4.1 Introduction / 147
4.2 Unit Commitment Solution Methods / 155
4.3 Security-Constrained Unit Commitment (SCUC) / 167
4.4 Daily Auctions Using a Unit Commitment / 167
APPENDIX 4A Dual Optimization on a Nonconvex Problem / 167
APPENDIX 4B Dynamic-Programming Solution to Unit Commitment / 173
4B.1 Introduction / 173
4B.2 Forward DP Approach / 174
PROBLEMS / 182
5 Generation with Limited Energy Supply 187
5.1 Introduction / 187
5.2 Fuel Scheduling / 188
5.3 Take-or-Pay Fuel Supply Contract / 188
5.4 Complex Take-or-Pay Fuel Supply Models / 194
5.5 Fuel Scheduling by Linear Programming / 195
5.6 Introduction to Hydrothermal Coordination / 202
5.7 Hydroelectric Plant Models / 204
5.8 Scheduling Problems / 207
5.9 The Hydrothermal Scheduling Problem / 211
5.10 Hydro-Scheduling using Linear Programming / 222
APPENDIX 5A Dynamic-Programming Solution to hydrothermal Scheduling / 225
5.A.1 Dynamic Programming Example / 227
PROBLEMS / 234
6 Transmission System Effects 243
6.1 Introduction / 243
6.2 Conversion of Equipment Data to Bus and Branch Data / 247
6.3 Substation Bus Processing / 248
6.4 Equipment Modeling / 248
6.5 Dispatcher Power Flow for Operational Planning / 251
6.6 Conservation of Energy (Tellegen’s Theorem) / 252
6.7 Existing Power Flow Techniques / 253
6.8 The Newton–Raphson Method Using the Augmented Jacobian Matrix / 254
6.9 Mathematical Overview / 257
6.10 AC System Control Modeling / 259
6.11 Local Voltage Control / 259
6.12 Modeling of Transmission Lines and Transformers / 259
6.13 HVDC links / 261
6.14 Brief Review of Jacobian Matrix Processing / 267
6.15 Example 6A: AC Power Flow Case / 269
6.16 The Decoupled Power Flow / 271
6.17 The Gauss–Seidel Method / 275
6.18 The “DC” or Linear Power Flow / 277
6.19 Unified Eliminated Variable Hvdc Method / 278
6.20 Transmission Losses / 284
6.21 Discussion of Reference Bus Penalty Factors / 288
6.22 Bus Penalty Factors Direct from the AC Power Flow / 289
PROBLEMS / 291
7 Power System Security 296
7.1 Introduction / 296
7.2 Factors Affecting Power System Security / 301
7.3 Contingency Analysis: Detection of Network Problems / 301
7.4 An Overview of Security Analysis / 306
7.5 Monitoring Power Transactions Using “Flowgates” / 313
7.6 Voltage Collapse / 315
APPENDIX 7A AC Power Flow Sample Cases / 327
APPENDIX 7B Calculation of Network Sensitivity Factors / 336
7B.1 Calculation of PTDF Factors / 336
7B.2 Calculation of LODF Factors / 339
7B.3 Compensated PTDF Factors / 343
Problems / 343
References / 349
8 Optimal Power Flow 350
8.1 Introduction / 350
8.2 The Economic Dispatch Formulation / 351
8.3 The Optimal Power Flow Calculation Combining Economic Dispatch and the Power Flow / 352
8.4 Optimal Power Flow Using the DC Power Flow / 354
8.5 Example 8A: Solution of the DC Power Flow OPF / 356
8.6 Example 8B: DCOPF with Transmission Line Limit Imposed / 361
8.7 Formal Solution of the DCOPF / 365
8.8 Adding Line Flow Constraints to the Linear Programming Solution / 365
8.9 Solution of the ACOPF / 368
8.10 Algorithms for Solution of the ACOPF / 369
8.11 Relationship Between LMP, Incremental Losses, and Line Flow Constraints / 376
8.12 Security-Constrained OPF / 382
APPENDIX 8A Interior Point Method / 391
APPENDIX 8B Data for the 12-Bus System / 393
APPENDIX 8C Line Flow Sensitivity Factors / 395
APPENDIX 8D Linear Sensitivity Analysis of the AC Power Flow / 397
PROBLEMS / 399
9 Introduction to State Estimation in Power Systems 403
9.1 Introduction / 403
9.2 Power System State Estimation / 404
9.3 Maximum Likelihood Weighted Least-Squares Estimation / 408
9.4 State Estimation of an Ac Network / 421
9.5 State Estimation by Orthogonal Decomposition / 428
9.6 An Introduction to Advanced Topics in State Estimation / 435
9.7 The Use of Phasor Measurement Units (PMUS) / 447
9.8 Application of Power Systems State Estimation / 451
9.9 Importance of Data Verification and Validation / 454
9.10 Power System Control Centers / 454
APPENDIX 9A Derivation of Least-Squares Equations / 456
9A.1 The Overdetermined Case (Nm > Ns) / 457
9A.2 The Fully Determined Case (Nm = Ns) / 462
9A.3 The Underdetermined Case (Nm < ns)="">
PROBLEMS / 464
10 Control of Generation 468
10.1 Introduction / 468
10.2 Generator Model / 470
10.3 Load Model / 473
10.4 Prime-Mover Model / 475
10.5 Governor Model / 476
10.6 Tie-Line Model / 481
10.7 Generation Control / 485
PROBLEMS / 497
References / 500
11 Interchange, Pooling, Brokers, and Auctions 501
11.1 Introduction / 501
11.2 Interchange Contracts / 504
11.3 Energy Interchange between Utilities / 517
11.4 Interutility Economy Energy Evaluation / 521
11.5 Interchange Evaluation with Unit Commitment / 522
11.6 Multiple Utility Interchange Transactions—Wheeling / 523
11.7 Power Pools / 526
11.8 The Energy-Broker System / 529
11.9 Transmission Capability General Issues / 533
11.10 Available Transfer Capability and Flowgates / 535
11.11 Security Constrained Unit Commitment (SCUC) / 550
11.12 Auction Emulation using Network LP / 555
11.13 Sealed Bid Discrete Auctions / 555
PROBLEMS / 560
12 Short-Term Demand Forecasting 566
12.1 Perspective / 566
12.2 Analytic Methods / 569
12.3 Demand Models / 571
12.4 Commodity Price Forecasting / 572
12.5 Forecasting Errors / 573
12.6 System Identification / 573
12.7 Econometric Models / 574
12.8 Time Series / 578
12.9 Time Series Model Development / 585
12.10 Artificial Neural Networks / 603
12.11 Model Integration / 614
12.12 Demand Prediction / 614
12.13 Conclusion / 616
PROBLEMS / 617
Index 620