Preface PART I—Understanding Argument
Introduction: Understanding Argument Encountering Arguments
Why Instructors Assign Argument (box)
What Kinds of Statements Are Not Debatable? (box)
Logos, Pathos, and Ethos
The Appeal to Logic
The Appeal to Emotion
The Appeal to Authority
1—The Structure of Argument AT ISSUE: Do the Benefits of Bottled Water Outweigh the Costs?
The Pillars of Argument
Checklist: Does Your Argument Stand Up?
Nia Tuckson, Why Foreign Language Study Should Be Required (student essay) Arnold Schwarzenegger, An Immigrant Writes READING AND WRITING ABOUT THE ISSUE: Do the Benefits of Bottled Water Outweigh the Costs?
New York Times, In Praise of Tap Water Zak Moore, Defying the Nalgene Tom Standage¸ Bad to the Last Drop Polandspring.com, Poland Spring Water (advertisement) Purewater2go.com, Pure Water 2GO (advertisement) Template for Structuring an Argument
Part II—Reading and Responding to Arguments
2—Thinking and Reading Critically
AT ISSUE: Do Violent Media Images Trigger Violent Behavior?
Guidelines for Becoming a Critical Reader (box)
Becoming an Active Reader
Comprehension Clues (box)
Gerard Jones, Violent Media is Good for Kid Highlighting
Suggestions for Highlighting (box)
John Leo, When Life Imitates Video (with highlighting) Annotating
Checklist: Questions for Annotating
John Leo, When Life Imitates Video (with highlighting and annotations) Tim Miley, Media Violence May Be Real Culprit behind Virginia Tech Tragedy
Patrick Mackin, Take Aim at Gun Jessica Robbins, Dont Withhold Violent Games Writing a Critical Response
Checklist: Questions for Critical Reading
Katherine Choi, Critical Response to “When Life Imitates Video” [student response] Template for Writing a Critical Response
3—Decoding Visual Arguments
AT ISSUE: Do Violent Media Images Trigger Violent Behavior? [continued]
Thinking Critically about Visual Arguments
Visual Texts vs. Visual Arguments (box)
Applying Active Reading Strategies to Visual Arguments
Comprehension Clues (box)
Appeals: Logos, Pathos, and Ethos (box)
Rob Rogers, “Youre Not Watching…” [cartoon]
United States Department of Justice, Crime Victims per 1,000 Citizens (chart) Distribution of Language, Sex, and Violence Codes in PG-Rated Movies (chart) Homicides per 100,000 Population (chart) John P. Murray, Routes of Influence of Television Violence (diagram) Everylifecounts.info, “I Saw 7,000 People Killed” (photograph) ACT Against Violence, Media Violence & Children (Web site) Highlighting and Annotating Visuals
Grand Theft Auto IV [desktop wallpaper] Media Violence [photograph] Checklist: Questions for Responding to Visual Arguments
Responding Critically to Visual Arguments
Jason Savona, Response to Grand Theft Auto IV Wallpaper (student response) Template for Responding to Visual Arguments
4—Writing a Rhetorical Analysis
AT ISSUE: Is It Ethical To Buy Counterfeit Designer Merchandise?
What Is a Rhetorical Analysis?
Overview of “Letter from Birmingham Jail,” by Martin Luther King Jr. (box)
Considering the Rhetorical Situation
Strategies for Analyzing the Rhetorical Situation (box)
Questions for Analyzing the Writer (box)
The Writers Purpose
Questions for Analyzing the Writers Purpose (box)
The Writers Audience
Questions for Analyzing the Writers Audience (box)
Questions for Analyzing the Topic (box)
Questions for Analyzing the Context (box)
Considering the Means of Persuasion: Logos, Pathos, Ethos
Considering the Writers Rhetorical Strategies
Assessing the Argument
Checklist: Writing a Rhetorical Analysis
Sample Rhetorical Analysis
Dana Thomas, Terror's Purse Strings Deniz Bilgutay, A Powerful Call to Action [student essay] Rajeev Ravisankar, Sweatshop Oppression Template for Writing a Rhetorical Analysis
5—Understanding Logic and Recognizing Fallacies
AT ISSUE: Do Merit-Based Scholarships Make Sense?
What is Deductive Reasoning?
Constructing Sound Syllogisms
Syllogism with an Illogical Middle Term
Syllogism with a Key Term Whose Meaning Shifts
Syllogisms with Negative Premises
Bumper Sticker Thinking (box)
Writing Deductive Arguments
What is Inductive Reasoning?
Reaching Inductive Conclusions (box)
Constructing Strong Inductive Arguments
Pooja Vaidya, Football Fanatics [student paragraph] Crystal Sanchez, College Should Be for Everyone [student essay] Writing Inductive Essays
William Saletan, Please Do Not Feed the Humans Recognizing Logical Fallacies
Begging the Question
Ad Hominem (Personal Attack)
Hasty or Sweeping Generalization (Jumping to a Conclusion)
Either/Or Fallacy (False Dilemma)
You Also (Tu Quoque)
Appeal to Doubtful Authority
Post Hoc, Ergo Propter Hoc (After This, Therefore Because of This)
Non Sequitur (It Does Not Follow)
Bandwagon Appeal (ad populum)
Patrick J. Buchanan, Immigration Time-Out READING AND WRITING ABOUT THE ISSUE: Do Merit-Based Scholarships Make Sense?
Peter Schmidt, At the Elite Colleges - Dim White Kids Zoe Mendelson, Paying for College Brent Staples, A Broader Definition of Merit: The Trouble with College Entry Exams Associated Press, Hamilton College to End Merit Scholarships in Favor of Need-Based Aid Lewis & Clark College, Merit-Based Scholarships for Incoming Students Template for Writing a Deductive Argument
Template for Writing an Inductive Argument
6—Rogerian Argument, Toulmin Logic, and Oral Argument
AT ISSUE: Is Distance Learning As Good As Classroom Learning?
Understanding Rogerian Argument
Structuring Rogerian Arguments
Writing Rogerian Arguments
Christopher Chu, Do the Olympic Games Need Permanent Host Sites? [student essay] Understanding Toulmin Logic
Constructing Toulmin Arguments
Writing Toulmin Arguments
Franco Ghilardi, Our Right to Burn or Burning Our Rights? [student essay] Understanding Oral Arguments
Planning an Oral Argument
Tips for Designing and Displaying Visuals (box)
Delivering Oral Arguments
Writing an Oral Argument
Chantee Steele, An Argument in Support of the “Gap Year” [student essay] READING AND WRITING ABOUT THE ISSUE: Is Distance Learning as Good as Classroom Learning?
Sandra C. Ceraulo, Online Education Rivals “Chalk and Talk” Variety Suzanne M. Kelly, The Sensuous Classroom: Focusing on the Embodiment of Learning Marilyn Karras, Calling a University “Virtual” Creates an Actual Oxymoron elearners.com, Frequently Asked Questions about eLearning [Web page] Naugatuck Valley Community College, Distance Learning Two Views of Distance Learning [photographs] Part III—Writing an Argumentative Essay
7—Planning, Drafting, and Revising an Argumentative Essay
AT ISSUE: Should College Campuses Go “Green”?
Choosing a Topic
Topics to Avoid (box)
Thinking about Your Topic
Taking a Stand
Understanding Your Audience
Kinds of Evidence
Criteria for Evaluating Evidence in Your Sources
Detecting Bias in Your Sources
Refuting Opposing Arguments
Daniel Halperin, Putting a Plague in Perspective Revising Your Thesis Statement
Understanding Essay Structure
Supplying Background Information (box)
Using Induction and Deduction
Constructing a Formal Outline
Preparing to Write
Establishing Your Credibility
Maintaining Your Credibility (box)
Writing Your Draft
Some Transitions for Argument (box)
Revising Your Argumentative Essay
Checklist: Questions about Your Essays Supporting Evidence
Checklist: Questions about Your Essays Structure and Style
Editing and Proofreading
Choosing a Title (box)
Shawn Holton, Going “Green” [student essay] Part IV—Using Sources to Support Your Argument
AT ISSUE: Should Data Posted on Social Networking Sites Be “Fair Game” for Employers?
Evaluating Print Sources
Michael Gregoris, Stay Informed on Facebooks Third-Party Privacy Policies Maria Aspan, How Sticky Is Membership on Facebook? Just Try Breaking Free Lew McCreary, What Was Privacy? Evaluating Internet Sources
Using a Sites URL to Assess Objectivity (box)
Avoiding Confirmation Bias (box)
Jonathan Kleiman, The Importance of User Education in Privacy Facebook, Facebook Principles Kim Hart, A Flashy Facebook Page, at a Cost to Privacy Carolyn Elefant, Do Employers Using Facebook for Background Checks Face Legal Risks? The Electronic Journal of Human Sexuality, Mission Statement 9—Summarizing, Paraphrasing, Quoting, and Synthesizing Sources
AT ISSUE: Should Data Posted on Social Networking Sites Be “Fair Game” for Employers? [continued]
When to Summarize (box)
How to Summarize Sources (box)
When to Paraphrase (box)
How to Paraphrase Sources (box) Quoting Sources When to Quote (box)
How to Quote Sources (box)
Alison George, Things You Wouldnt Tell Your Mother Working Source Material into Your Argument
Using Identifying Tags
Verbs in Identifying Tags (box)
Working Quotations into Your Sentences
Distorting Quotations (box)
10—Documenting Sources: MLA
Using Parenthetical References
Preparing the Works-Cited List
Erin Blaine, Should Data Posted on Social Networking Sites Be “Fair Game” for Employers? [Sample MLA Paper] 11—Avoiding Plagiarism AT ISSUE: Where Do We Draw the Line with Plagiarism?
Modern Language Association, Definition of Plagiarism Using Sources Responsibly
Internet Sources and Plagiarism (box)
Intentional Plagiarism (box)
Knowing What to Document
Austin American-Statesman, Cheaters Never Win Revising to Eliminate Plagiarism
Source 1: Christina Hoff Sommers, from “The War against Boys”
Source 2: Rosalind C. Barnett and Caryl Rivers, from “Men Are from Earth, and So Are Women. Its Faulty Research That Sets Them Apart”
READING AND WRITING ABOUT THE ISSUE: Where Do We Draw the Line with Plagiarism?
Jack Shafer, Sidebar: Comparing the Copy Lawrence M. Hinman, How to Fight College Cheating Deborah R. Gerhardt, The Rules of Attribution Richard A. Posner, The Truth about Plagiarism Doris Kearns Goodwin, How I Caused That Story Carolyn Foster Segal, Copy This Template for Writing an Argument about Plagiarism
Writing Assignments: Avoiding Plagiarism
Part V—Patterns and Purposes
12—Argument by Definition AT ISSUE: Is Wikipedia a Legitimate Research Source?
What is Argument by Definition?
Dictionary Definitions (Formal Definitions)
Structuring an Argument by Definition
Adam Kennedy, Why I Am a Non-Traditional Student [student essay] GRAMMAR IN CONTEXT: Avoiding Is Where and Is When
Gayle Rosenwald Smith, The Wife-Beater Nikki Grimes, What is a Good Poem? Courage (poster)
Courage is not the Absence of Fear (poster)
READING AND WRITING ABOUT THE ISSUE: Is Wikipedia a Legitimate Research Source?
John Seigenthaler, A False Wikipedia Biography Randall Stross, Anonymous Source is Not the Same as Open Source Encyclopedia of Earth, Policy on the Use of Content from Wikipedia Neil Waters, Wikiphobia: The Latest in Open Source The Stanford Daily, Wikipedia with Caution Wikipedia, Revision History of “Global Warming” Wikipedia, Global Warming (difference between revisions) Template for Writing an Argument by Definition
Writing Assignments: Argument by Definition
AT ISSUE: Will Lowering the Drinking Age Solve the Problem of Binge Drinking among College Students?
What is Causal Argument?
Take the Keys. Call a Cab. Take a Stand. (advertisement) Gun Control Bumper Stickers (photograph)
Caution: Cigarette Smoking May be Hazardous to Your Health. (photograph) Surgeon Generals Warning (photograph) Understanding Cause and Effect Relationships
Main and Contributory Causes
Immediate and Remote Causes
Key Words for Causal Argument
Post Hoc Reasoning
Nora Ephron, The Chicken Soup Chronicles Structuring a Causal Argument
Kristina Mialki, Texting: A Boon, Not a Threat, to Language [student essay] GRAMMAR IN CONTEXT: Avoiding “The reason is because”
Marjorie O. Rendell, U.S. Needs an Educated Citizenry READING AND WRITING ABOUT THE ISSUE: Will Lowering the Drinking Age Solve the Problem of Binge Drinking Among College Students?
Amethyst Initiative, Statement Radley Balko, Amethyst Initiatives Debate on Drinking a Welcome Alternative to Fanaticism Joanne Glasser, Alcohol and Those Under 21 Dont Mix Andrew Herman, Raise the Drinking Age to 25 Bradley R. Gitz, Save Us from Youth Robert Voas, Theres No Benefit to Lowering the Drinking Age Template for Writing a Causal Argument
Writing Assignments: Causal Argument
AT ISSUE: Do the Harry Potter Books Deserve Their Popularity?
What is Argument by Evaluation?
Making Evaluations (box)
Criteria for Evaluation
Structuring an Evaluation Argument
Loren Martinez, Not Just a “Girl” [student essay] GRAMMAR IN CONTEXT: Comparatives and Superlatives
Kalamazoo Gazette, Do We Have the Worlds Best Medical Care? READING AND WRITING ABOUT THE ISSUE: Do the Harry Potter Books Deserve Their Popularity?
Michiko Kakutani, An Epic Showdown as Harry Potter is Initiated into Adulthood Carlie Webber, Were All Still Wild About Harry A. S. Byatt, Harry Potter and the Childish Adult Charles Taylor, A. S. Byatt and the Goblet of Bile Christine Schoefer, Harry Potters Girl Trouble Template for Writing an Evaluation Argument
Writing Assignments: Evaluation Arguments
AT ISSUE: Should College Lectures Be Made Available as Podcasts?
What is a Proposal Argument?
Stating the Problem
Allchokedup.org, I Love This Town But the Traffic Is Killing Me (advertisement) Sunshineweek.org, Let the Sunshine In (advertisement) Proposing a Solution
Demonstrating that Your Solution Will Work
Addressing Possible Objections
Nyc.gov, Its Your City. Its Your Earth.(advertisement) John Leo, If I Ran the Zoo Structuring Proposal Arguments
Melissa Burrell, Colleges Need Honor Codes [student essay] GRAMMAR IN CONTEXT: Will vs. Would T. Boone Pickens, My Plan to Escape the Grip of Foreign Oil READING AND WRITING ABOUT THE ISSUE: Should College Murray Jensen, Lecture is Dead: Take 3 Robert Schneider, The Attack of the Pod People Jeff Cutro, Globalizing Education One Podcast at a Time The Pitt News, iPod Addiction Goes Academic Fabienne Serriere, Teaching via iPod Apple.com, iTunes U and Mobile Learning (advertisement) Template for Writing a Proposal Argument
Writing Assignments: Proposal Arguments
16—Argument by Analogy
AT ISSUE: Should Credit Card Companies Be Permitted to Target College Students?
What is Analogy?
Key Words for Analogy
What is Argument by Analogy?
Avoiding Weak Analogies
Positive and Negative Analogies
Structuring an Argument by Analogy
Anthony Luu, Does Separate Housing for Minority Students Make Sense? [student essay] GRAMMAR IN CONTEXT: Using Like and As
Nat Hentoff, Civil Rights and Anti-Abortion Protests READING AND WRITING ABOUT THE ISSUE: Should Credit Card Companies Be Permitted to Target College Students?
Erica L. Williams and Tim Westrich, The Young and the Indebted Contra Costa Times, Non-Issue Needs No Law FindCollegeCards.com, College Student Credit Cards Jessica Silver-Greenberg, Majoring in Credit-Card Debt Template for Writing An Argument by Analogy
Writing Assignments: Argument by Analogy
AT ISSUE: How Far Should Colleges Go to Keep Campuses Safe?
What is an Ethical Argument?
Stating an Ethical Principal
Ethics versus Law
Understanding Ethical Dilemmas
Treadlighly.org, Ride Hard, Tread Lightly (advertisement) Human Meat (photograph) Linda Pastan, Ethics Structuring Ethical Arguments
Chris Munoz, The Promise to Educate [student essay] GRAMMAR IN CONTEXT: Subordination and Coordination
National Anti-Vivisection Society, Animals in Scientific Research READING AND WRITING ABOUT THE ISSUE: How Far Should Colleges Go to Keep Campuses Safe?
M. Perry Chapman, Openness vs. Security on Campus Brett A. Sokolow, How Not to Respond to Virginia Tech - II
Jesus M. Villahermosa, Jr., Guns Dont Belong in the Hands of Administrators, Professors, or Students Timothy Wheeler, Theres a Reason They Choose Schools Isothermal Community College, Warning Signs: How You Can Help Prevent Campus Violence Gone But Not Forgotten Template for Writing an Ethical Argument
Writing Assignments: Proposal Arguments
DEBATES18—Should We Eat Meat?
Laura Fraser, “Why I Stopped Being A Vegetarian” Jonathan Safran Foer, “Let Them Eat Dog” 19—Do We Still Need Newspapers?
Chris Hedges, Requiem for Real News Gary S. Becker, Yes, Newspapers are Doomed 20—What Rights Should the Homeless Have?
John Derbyshire, Throw the Bums Out: But Do So with Compassion — Coolidge-Style Compassion America, The Meanest Cities 21—Should the US Government Drop its Sanctions against Cuba?
Lincoln Diaz-Balart, Opposition to Rep. Rangel Amendment to Life Embargo on Cuban Regime Jacob Weisberg, Thanks for the Sanctions 22—Should Undocumented Immigrants Be Entitled to Drivers Licenses?
National Immigration Law Center, Fact Sheet: Why Denying Divers Licenses to Undocumented Immigrants Harms Public Safety and Makes Our Communities Less Secure Michael W. Cutler, States Should Not Issue Driver's Licenses to Illegal Immigrants CASEBOOKS
23—Should the U.S. Drill for Oil in Environmentally Sensitive Areas?
Pete Du Pont, Drill, Baby, Drill Lamar Alexander, To Drill or… Ed Markey, …Not to Drill Natural Resources Defense Council, Arctic National Wildlife Refuge: Why Trash an American Treasure for a Tiny Percentage of Our Oil Needs? 24—Should Felons Permanently Forfeit Their Right to Vote?
Bill McCollum, Felons Dont Merit Automatic Rights Edward Feser, Should Felons Vote? Rebecca Perl, The Last Disenfranchised Class New York Times, Felons and the Right to Vote 25—Should Openly Gay Men and Women Be Permitted to Serve in the Military?
John M. Shalikashvili, Second Thoughts on Gays in the Military Vance Coleman, Written Statement to Subcommittee on Military Personnel, House Armed Services Committee, U.S. House of Representatives Stephan Benjamin, Dont Ask, Dont Translate Daniel L. Davis, Homosexuals in the Military: Combat Readiness or Social Engineering? Brian Jones, Statement to Subcommittee on Military Personnel, House Armed Services Committee, U.S. House of Representatives David Benkof, Allow Gays to Serve in Non-Combat Roles 26—Should Every American Have the Right to Go to College?
Robert T. Perry, On “Real Education” - II Margaret Miller, The Privileges of the Parents Charles Murray, What's Wrong with Vocational School? Pharinet, Is College for Everyone? 27—Do Workers Still Need Unions?
Wendy Zellner, How Wal-Mart Keeps Unions at Bay: Organizing the Nations No. 1 Employer Would Give Labor a Lift John L. Lewis, Labor and the Nation Fielding Poe, Watch Out for Stereotypes of Labor Unions Paula Green and Malcolm Dodds, Look for the Union Label James Sherk, Do Americans Today Still Need Labor Unions? 28—CLASSIC ARGUMENTS
Plato, Allegory of the Cave Niccolò Machiavelli, From The Prince Andrew Marvell, To His Coy Mistress Jonathan Swift, A Modest Proposal Thomas Jefferson, Declaration of Independence Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions Margaret Sanger, The Cause of War Rachel Carson, The Obligation to Endure
Martin Luther King Jr., Letter from Birmingham Jail Appendix A—Writing Literary Arguments
What is Literary Argument?
Stating an Argumentative Thesis
Writing a Literary Argument
Megan McGovern, Confessions of a Misunderstood Poem: An Analysis of “The Road Not Taken” [student essay] Appendix B—Documenting Sources: APA
Using Parenthetical References
Preparing a Reference List
Deniz Bilgutay, The High Cost of Cheap Counterfeit Goods (Sample APA Paper) Index