Synopses & Reviews
This symposium addresses all aspects of H- and D- sources, the formation of negative hydrogen and deuterium beams from these sources, and their beam transport properties. The discussion includes both the latest theoretical and experimental work in these areas. The negative ion sources are multicusp, Penning, magnetron, rf (1-13 MHz), surface converter, microwave/ECR (GHz frequency), and polarized source types. Experimental work also includes beam chopping, space-charge lenses, optimized negative ion extraction systems, and beam diagnostics. The negative ion production mechanisms are volume (pure hydrogen or deuterium discharge) and surface production using cesium or other alkali metal to catalyze negative ion production. Theoretical analyses include plasma chemistry, particle-in-cell modeling, and H-/D- extraction physics simulations. The main applications for H- sources are in high-energy neutral beam injectors for fusion reactors and H- sources for charge exchange injection into synchrotrons or spallation neutron source storage rings.