Synopses & Reviews
Sandra Harding is an intellectually fearless scholar. She assembled a bold, impressive collection of essays to make a volume of illuminating power. This brilliantly edited book is essential reading for all who seek understanding of the multicultural debates of our age. Never has a book been more timely. -Darlene Clark HineFueled by the declining legitimacy of Western authority and by critiques of Eurocentrism, a number of widely acclaimed analyses of the sciences have recently appeared. Sandra Harding draws from this body of scholarship to assemble an anthology of classic essays by Third World and Western thinkers who link the sciences to local, national, and international projects for making and remaking democracy.In this rich, diverse collection, historians, sociologists, anthropologists, philosophers, political theorists, and scientists treat a wide range of issues: revaluating the sciences in premodern high cultures of China, Africa, and the Andes; disputes over science's legitimation of culturally approved definitions of race difference, from craniology to the measurement of IQ; overcoming the dependence of Third World research on First World agendas; race, imperialism, and the application of scientific technologies in health and reproductive areas; the notorious Tuskegee syphilis experiments; developmental agriculture and applied biology in the Third World; environmental racism and environmental crises in developing countries; questions of values, objectivity, method, and nature in sciences; and visions of programs that create sciences for a democratic world community.
By racial economy Harding means those institutions, assumptions, and practices that are responsible for disproportionately distributing along 'racial' lines the benefits of Western science to the haves and the bad consequences to the have--nots, thereby enlarging the gap between them. Challenging traditional views of Western science as a progressive force and pure intellectual endeavor, she instead locates it as a Eurocentric institution shaped by the racist, sexist, and imperialist character of the dominant social order (from which ranks its practitioners are still largely drawn), and disserving the needs and interests of the peoples of the Third World and minorities in Western society. She further suggests that science itself has suffered as a creative force by neglecting the potential of non--Western contributions. An impressively broad array of scholarship has been assembled to explore these issues, drawn from scientists and historians of science, activists, and public policy analysts. The essays address themes of non--Western scientific traditions, scientific views of race, who gets to do science, regressive effects of technology on peoples of non--European origin, the supposed value neutrality of science, and the possibilities for a different relationship between science and society. A rich lode of readily accessible thought on the nature and practice of science in society. Highly recommended. General; undergraduate; graduate.L. W. Moore, formerly, University of Kentucky, Choice, May 1994 Indiana University Press Indiana University Press Indiana University Press
'The Racial Economy of Science' encompassed a range of crucial issues, including a critical revaluation of the sciences in pre-modern high cultures of China, Africa, and the Andes; how science legitimated culturally approved definitions of race difference; the dependence of Third World research of First World agendas; race, imperialism, and the application of scientific technologies in health and reproduction; developmental agriculture and applied biology in the Third World; environmental racism and environmental crises in developing countries; and visions of programs that create sciences for a democratic world community.
"The classic and recent essays gathered here will challenge scholars in the natural sciences, philosophy, sociology, anthropology, and women's studies to examine the role of racism in the construction and application of the sciences. Harding... has also created a useful text for diverse classroom settings." --Library Journal
"A rich lode of readily accessible thought on the nature and practice of science in society. Highly recommended." --Choice
"This is an excellent collection of essays that should prove useful in a wide range of STS courses." --Science, Technology, and Society
"... important and provocative... "
About the Author
SANDRA HARDING, a philosopher, is Professor of Education and Women Studies at UCLA. She is author of Whose Science: Whose Knowledge?: Thinking from Women's Lives and The Science Question in Feminism, and editor of Feminism and Methodology: Social Science Issues.
Table of Contents
Introduction: Eurocentric Scientific Illiteracy--A Challenge for the World Community
I. Early Non-Western Scientific Traditions
Poverties and Triumphs of the Chinese Scientific Tradition
Black Athena: Hostilities to Egypt in the Eighteenth Century
Early Andean Experimental Agriculture
II. Science Constructs "Race"
American Polygeny and Craniometry before Darwin: Blacks and Indians as Separate, Inferior Species
Stephen Jay Gould
Racial Classifications: Popular and Scientific
Gloria A. Marshall
The Study of Race
On the Nonexistence of Human Races
Frank B. Livingstone
IQ: The Rank Ordering of the World
R.C. Lewontin, Steven Rose, and Leon J. Kamin
The Health of Black Folk: Disease, Class, and Ideology in Science
Nancy Krieger and Mary Bassett
Appropriating the Idioms of Science: The Rejection of Scientific Racism
Nancy Leys Stepan and Sander L. Gilman
III. Who Gets to Do Science?
Aesculapius Was a White Man: Race and the Cult of True Womanhood
Ronald T. Takaki
Co-Laborer-in the Work of the Lord: Nineteenth-century Black Women Physicians
Darlene Clark Hine
Ernest Everett Just: The role of Foundation Support for Black Scientists 1920-1929
Kenneth R. Manning
Never Meant to Survive: A Black Woman's Journey--An Interview with Evelynn Hammonds
Increasing the Participation of Black Women in Science and Technology
Without More Minorities, Women, Disabled, U.S. Scientific Failure Certain, Fed Study Says
Eileen M. O'Brien
Modern Science and the Periphery: The Characteristics of Dependent Knowledge
IV. Science's Technologies and Applications
The Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment: "A Moral Astigmatism"
Calling the Shots? The International Politics of Depo-Provera
Colonialism and the Evolution of Masculinist Forestry
Applied Biology in the Third World: The Struggle for Revolutionary Science
Richard Levins and Richard Lewontin
V. Objectivity, Method, and Nature: Value Neutral?
Methods and Values in Science
National Academy of Sciences
Nazi Medicine and the Politics of Knowledge
Race and Gender: The Role of Analogy in Science
Nancy Leys Stepan
The Bio-politics of a Multicultural Field
Cultural Differences in High-Energy Physics: Contrasts between Japan and the United States
The "Relevance" of Anthropology to Colonialism and Imperialism
VI. The Future: Toward a Democratic Strategy For World Sciences
Science and Democracy: A Fundamental Correlation
Bill Zimmerman et al.
Science and Black People
Editorial, The Black Scholar
Science, Technology and Black Community Development
Robert C. Johnson
Towards a Democratic Strategy for Science: The New Politics of Science
Modern Science in Crisis: A Third World Response
Third World Network