"Many standard histories of Christianity chronicle the Reformation as a single, momentous period in the history of the Church. According to those accounts, a number of competing groups of reformers challenged a monolithic and corrupt Roman Catholicism over issues ranging from authority and the role of the priests to the interpretation of the Eucharist and the use of the Bible in church. In this wide-ranging, richly layered and captivating study of the Reformation, MacCulloch challenges traditional interpretations, arguing instead that there were many reformations. Arranging his history in chronological fashion, MacCulloch provides in-depth studies of reform movements in central, northern and southern Europe and examines the influences that politics and geography had on such groups. He challenges common assumptions about the relationships between Catholic priests and laity, arguing that in some cases Protestantism actually took away religious authority from laypeople rather than putting it in their hands. In addition, he helpfully points out that even within various groups of reformers there was scarcely agreement about ways to change the Church. MacCulloch offers valuable and engaging portraits of key personalities of the Reformation, including Erasmus, Luther, Zwingli and Calvin. More than a history of the Reformation, MacCulloch's study examines its legacy of individual religious authority and autonomous biblical interpretation. This spectacular intellectual history reminds us that the Reformation grew out of the Renaissance, and provides a compelling glimpse of the cultural currents that formed the background to reform. MacCulloch's magisterial book should become the definitive history of the Reformation. (May 3)" Publishers Weekly (Copyright 2004 Reed Business Information, Inc.)
"[A]n outstanding work that examines fairly and objectively a definitive epoch in the history and spiritual development of the Western world." Booklist
The Reformation and Counter-Reformation represented the greatest upheaval in Western society since the collapse of the Roman Empire. In this masterful history, MacCulloch conveys the drama, complexity, and continuing relevance of these events.
Diarmaid MacCulloch is a fellow of St. Cross College, Oxford, and a professor of the history of the Church at Oxford University. His books include The Boy King: Edward VI and the Protestant Reformation and the award-winning Thomas Cramner: A Life.
Preface and Acknowledgments vii
List of Illustrations and Maps xiii
part 1: a common culture
1. The Old Church, 1490û1517 3
Seeing Salvation in Church/3 ò The First Pillar: The Mass and
Purgatory/10 ò Layfolk at Prayer/16 ò The Second Pillar: Papal
Primacy/26 ò A Pillar Cracks: Politics and the Papacy/34 ò
Church Versus Commonwealth?/41
2. Hopes and Fears, 1490û1517 51
Shifting Boundaries/51 ò The Iberian Exception/55 ò The Iberian
Achievement: The Western Church Exported/62 ò New Possibilities:
Paper and Printing/68 ò Humanism: A New World from Books/73 ò
Putting Renewal into Practice/84 ò Reform or the Last Days?/90 ò
Erasmus: Hopes Fulfilled, Fears Stilled?/94
3. New Heaven: New Earth, 1517û24 103
The Shadow of Augustine/103 ò Luther: A Good Monk, 1483û1517/111 ò
An Accidental Revolution, 1517û21/119 ò Whose Revolution? 1521û22/128 ò Evangelical Challenges:
Zwingli and Radicalism, 1521û22/133 ò Znrich
and Wittenberg, 1522û24/140 ò The Years of Carnival, 1521û24/147
4. Wooing the Magistrate, 1524û40 154
EuropeÆs Greatest Rebellion, 1524û25/154 ò Princely Churches or
Christian Separation, 1525û30/158 ò The Birth of Protestantisms,
1529û33/166 ò Strassburg: New Rome or New Jerusalem?/174 ò
Kings and Reformers, 1530û40/184 ò A New King David?
Mnnster and Its Aftermath/199
5. Reunion Deferred: Catholic and Protestant, 1530û60 207
A Southern Revival/207 ò Ignatius Loyola and the Early Jesuits/212 ò
Hopes for a Deal: The 1541û42 Crisis/219 ò A Council at Trent:
The First Session, 1545û49/227 ò Calvin in Geneva: The Reformed
Answer to Mnnster/230 ò Calvin and the Eucharist: Protestant
Divisions Confirmed/240 ò Reformed Protestantism: Alternatives to
6. Reunion Scorned, 1547û70 262
Crisis for the Habsburgs, 1547û55/262 ò 1555: An EmperorÆs
Exhaustion, a PopeÆs Obsession/268 ò A Catholic Recovery: England,
1553û58/272 ò 1558û59: Turning Points for Dynasties/277 ò The Last
Session of the Council of Trent, 1561û63/294 ò Protestants in Arms:
France and the Low Countries, 1562û70/296
part ii: europe divided: 1570û1619
7. The New Europe Defined, 1569û72 307
Northern and Southern Religion/307 ò Tridentine Successes/312 ò
The Catholic Defense of Christendom, 1565û71/319 ò Militant Northern
Protestants, 1569û72/321 ò The Massacre of St. Bartholomew, 1572/327 ò
Poland 1569û76: An Alternative Future?/329 ò Protestantism
8. The North: Protestant Heartlands 337
Defining Lutheranism: Toward the Formula of Concord/337 ò
The ôSecond Reformationö in Germany/343 ò Baltic Religious Contests:
Poland-Lithuania and Scandinavia/348 ò The Northern Netherlands:
Protestant Victory/356 ò The Northern Netherlands: The Arminian
Crisis/363 ò A Reformed Success: Scotland/368 ò Elizabethan
England: A Reformed Church?/371 ò Ireland: The Coming of the
9. The South: Catholic Heartlands 388
Italy: The Counter-ReformationÆs Heart/389 ò Spain and Portugal:
King PhilipÆs Church/404 ò The Counter-Reformation as World
10. Central Europe: Religion Contested 428
The Empire and Habsburg Lands: A Shattered Church/428 ò Habsburgs,
Wittelsbachs, and a Catholic Recovery/435 ò Transylvania: A Reformed
Israel/442 ò France: Collapse of a Kingdom, 1572û98/449 ò France: A
11. Decision and Destruction, 1618û48 469
12. Coda: A British Legacy, 1600û1700 485
New English Beginnings: Richard Hooker and Lancelot
Andrewes/486 ò Early Stuart England: The ChurchÆs Golden
Age?/495 ò War in Three Kingdoms, 1638û60/503 ò A Spectrum
of Protestantisms, 1660û1700/511 ò American Beginnings/515
part iii: patterns of life
13. Changing Times 531
Time Ending/532 ò Hearing GodÆs Voice/537 ò Fighting Antichrist:
Idols/539 ò Fighting Antichrist: Witches/544
14. Death, Life, and Discipline 557
Negotiations with Death and Magic/557 ò Telling out the
Word/564 ò Godly Discipline/572 ò A Spirit of Protestantism?/580
15. Love and Sex: Staying the Same 587
A Common Legacy/587 ò The Family in Society/594 ò The Fear of
16. Love and Sex: Moving On 608
The ôReformation of Mannersö/608 ò Catholicism, the Family, and
Celibacy/614 ò Protestantism and the Family/624 ò Choices in
17. Outcomes 645
Wars of Reformation/646 ò Tolerating Difference/651 ò Crosscurrents:
Humanism and Natural Philosophy/656 ò Crosscurrents: Judaism and
Doubts/664 ò The Enlightenment and Beyond/674
Appendix of Texts: Creeds, LordÆs Prayer, Ten Commandments, and Hail Mary 685
Further Reading 745
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS AND MAPS
1a. Chancel arch figure, Preston Bissett (photo: author).
1b. People of ôCalicut,ö from Triumph des Kaisers Maximilian I (Vienna, 1883û84), no. 131/124 (Bodleian Library, Oxford, by permission).
2. Vulgate text: Biblia Sacra (Lyon, 1511, authorÆs possession).
3. Doom painting, Wenhaston (photo: Dr. Katherine Whale, by permission from her and the Council of the Suffolk Institute of Archaeology and History).
4. Statue of Charlemagne, Grossmnnster, Znrich (Hoch bauamt Kanton Znrich, Fotoarchiv).
5. Huldrych Zwingli (¬ Swiss National Museum, Znrich, neg. no. 109736, by permission).
6a. St. Sebaldus Shrine, St. Sebaldus Church, Nuremberg: J. Chipps Smith, German Sculpture of the Late Renaissance c. 1520û1580: Art in an Age of Uncertainty (photo: Sackler Library, Oxford, ¬ Princeton University Press, 1994, reproduced by permission).
6b. South porch gable, Priston, Somerset (photo: author).
7. Philip of Spain and Queen Mary at the Last Supper, St. Janskerk, Gouda (¬ Stichting Fonds Goudse Glazen, reproduced by permission).
8. Charles V (Prado Museum, Madrid. Photo: Bridgeman Art Library).
9. Armada portrait of Queen Elizabeth I, Woburn Abbey (¬ the Marquess of Tavistock and the Trustees of the Bedford Estates, reproduced by permission).
10. Martin Luther and Katharina von Bora (Ashmolean Museum, Oxford, Hope 66752, by permission).
11. A papal blessing at St. PeterÆs Rome (Oxford, Bodleian Library, Douce Prints Portfolio 141 , by permission).
12. St. Ursula with her virgins: N. Circignani, Ecclesiµ Anglicanµ troph£a (Rome, 1584; Bodleian Library, Oxford, by permission).
13. English torture of Catholic missionary clergy (Bodleian Library, Oxford, Douce Prints Portfolio 141 , by permission).
14a. John Calvin by Johann Michael Pnchler (¬ Bildarchiv Preussische, Kulturbesitz, Berlin, reproduced by permission).
14b. Panorama of Amsterdam: A. M. Mallet, Description de lÆunivers (5 vols., Paris 1683, Bodleian Library, Oxford, by permission).
15a. Cologne Cathedral, 1824 (¬ Rheinisches Bildarchiv, reproduced by permission).
15b. Our Lady of Victory, Bila Hora, Prague (photo: Maria Dowling and Edmund Green).
16. Auto da fT, Spain (Bodleian Library, Douce Portfolio 141 , by permission).
17. Siege of Heidelberg, 1622 (Bodleian Library, Douce prints E.2.3 , by permission).
18a. Elizabethan communion plate: Charsfield (by permission of the Council of the Suffolk Institute of Archaeology and History).
18b. Chalice: St. JohnÆs College, Oxford (the President and Fellows, St. JohnÆs College, by permission).
19a. Ceiling paintings, Tancs parish church, Transylvania (photo: Andrew Spicer).
19b. Burntisland, Fife, MarinersÆ Gallery (photo: Margo Todd).
20. Map of Palestine: The New Testament of Our Lord Jesus Christ (London, 1606, authorÆs possession).
21a. Rood screen, Roxton, Bedfordshire, England (photo: Eamon Duffy).
21b. Dutch bilingual Psalter: Les CL Pseaulmes David/De CL Psalmen Davids (Amsterdam, c. 1640, authorÆs possession).
22. Mary overcoming heresy, Naples Cathedral: G. Barraclough, ed., The Christian World: A Social and Cultural History (New York, 1981; ¬ Thames and Hudson, reproduced by permission).
23a. John Winthrop (¬ Massachusetts Historical Society; Bridgeman Art Library, reproduced by permission).
23b. Derry Cathedral: Reliquary, New Series, vol. 5 (1891).
24. Anna Maria van Schurman (Bodleian Library, Oxford, Douce Prints Portfolio 134 , by permission).
illustrations in the text
1. The Wittenberg Reformers in their early years. Martin Luther (Ashmolean Museum, Oxford: Hope Collection 66752, by permission). Philipp Melanchthon: J. Boissard, Icones (1597). 137
2. The leading Reformers of Strassburg: J. Boissard, Icones (1597). Matthias Zell and Martin Bucer (Ashmolean Museum, Oxford: Hope Collection 68868, by permission). 178
3. Two early champions of Catholic renewal. Gasparo Contarini and Ignatius Loyola (Bodleian Library, Oxford, Douce Prints Portfolio 134 [613, 627], by permission). 217
4. Two Italian refugees from the downfall of the Spirituali. Peter Martyr Vermigli: S. Clark, The Marrow of Ecclesiastical Historie (London, 1650), p. 201. Bernardino Ochino: J. F. Rein, Das gesamte Augspurgische Evangelische Ministerium in Bildern und schriften von den ersten Jahren der Reformation Lutheri bis auf 1748 (Augsburg, 1749). 226
5. Two Reformed leaders of northern Europe. John Knox: J. Knox, The historie of the Reformation of Religioun in Scotland (Edinburgh, 1732). Jan Laski: S. Clark, The Marrow of Ecclesiastical Historie (London, 1650). 285
6. Counter-Reformation preacher: D. ValadTs, Rhetorica christiana ad concionandi (Perugia, 1579) (Bodleian Library, Oxford, by permission). 317
7. Panorama of Bremen: M. Merian, Topographia Saxoniµ Inferioris: das ist, Beschreibung der vornehmsten StStte vnnd PlStz in dem hochl÷blichten Nider SSchssen Graisse (Frankfurt, 1653) (By permis- sion, Taylor Library, Oxford). 349
8. Philip II of Spain: Jehan LhermiteÆs Passetemps, BibliothFque Royale, Brussels, MS II 1028/157 (¬ Brussels, Royal Library of Belgium, reproduced by permission). 406
9. Cartagena: A. M. Mallet, Description de LÆUnivers (5 vols, Paris, 1683) (Bodleian Library, Oxford, by permission). 425
10. Commemorative centenary medal, Confession of Augsburg, 1630 (Ashmolean Museum, Oxford: Hope Collection 66772, by permission). 475
11. The architects of Arminian policies in England: Charles I and William Laud, archbishop of Canterbury. The History of the Grand Rebellion...digested into verse (3 vols., London, 1713). 502
12. Lambeth Palace: A Description of England and Wales (London, 1770). 512
13. The reign of Edward VI: J. Foxe, Acts and Monuments, 1570 (by permission, Bodleian Library, Oxford). 543
14. Stool of Repentance, Greyfriars: W. Andrews (ed.), Bygone Church Life in Scotland (London, 1899). 579
15. Two important Reformation beards: Heinrich Bullinger and Thomas Cranmer, from J. Boissard, Icones (1645). 630
1. EuropeÆs Political Units, c. 1500 4
2. The Swiss Confederation in the Early Sixteenth Century 105
3. The Holy Roman Empire, c. 1600, Showing Second Reformation Territories 339
4. The Iberian World Empires, c. 1600 390
5. East and Central Europe, 1648 431
6. Confessional Divisions in Europe, c. 1600 470
7. North American Seaboard, c. 1700 488