Agroforestry and silvopastoralism are ancient ways of managing forestland that should be encouraged as they increase productivity in the short, medium and long terms (in comparison with forestland), biodiversity (in comparison with farmland) and the sustainability of land (multiproduct system). This book addresses important problems that need to be solved by indicating adequate means of managing forestry and grasslands. These problems are related to issues such as the multiple benefits of forests, fire and erosion risk reduction and countryside conservation. This book is based on papers presented at a conference held in Spain in April 2004.
Acknowledgements and Congress Information
Session 1. Silvopastoral systems. Main types and designs
Invited Key notes
Silvopastoral systems in North-West Europe, J.H. McAdam.
Silvopastoral systems in the Neotropics, E. Murgueitio.
European types of silvopastoral systems in the Mediterranean area: dehesa, L.Olea, R.J. Lopez-Bellido and M.J. Poblaciones.
Mediterranean European silvopastoral systems, A.San Miguel-Ayanz.
Agroforestry for improving farm smallholdings, M.R. Alam, M.D. Jahiruddin and M.S. Islam.
Improved fallows with forage trees for a slash and burn maize system in the Yucatan Peninsula, S.A. Ayala, V.G. Uribe and G.J.A. Basulto.
The influence of climate and soil type on the "montado" production system, A. Quintas, M.S. Pereira, P.J. CARMONA, D. RAMIREZ-CRUZADO AND C.C. BELO.
Silvopastoralism with native tree species in Uruguay, L.Gallo.
Classification principles and use of grazed forest stands in the Ukraine, G.B. Gladun.
Traditional silvoarable systems and their evolution in Greece, K.Mantzanas, E.Tsatsiadis, I. Ispikoudis and V.P. Papanastasis.
Biodiversity and sustainable development in the silvopastoral systems of the Cantabrian mountains, M.Mayor Lopez, J.A. Oliveira Prendes and M. Fernandez Benito.
Goat production system in mountain zones: the case of Peneda's mountain, L.F. Pacheco, J.Pires, A. Iglesias, J. Cantalapiedra, D.Barreto and J.P. Araujo.
Silvopastoralism in Evitania, central Greece, A. Pantera and A.M. Papadopulos.
The effect of duck grazing on cocoa yields in Sao Tome island, A.Pardini.
Types of land use in the montado (dehesa) production system, M.S. Pereira, A. Quintas, I.S. Coelho and C.C. Belo.
Contribution of silvopastoral systems to land upkeep: differences and determining factors in a French upland region, H.Rapey and R. Lifran
From forest grazing to multipurpose shelterbelts in Hungary, V.Takas and N. Frank
Session 2. Productivity, quality and management of silvopastoral systems
Main invited Key notes
Silvopasture in south-eastern United States: more than just a new name for an old practice, P.K. R. Nair, M.E Bannister, V.D. Nair, J.R.R. Alavalapati, E.A. Ellis, S.Jose and A.J. Long.
Invited Key notes
Nutritive value of trees and shrubs for ruminants, J.C Ku-Vera
Quality of vegetation in silvopastoral systems, M.P. Gonzalez-Hernandez.
The herbaceous component in temperate silvopastoral systems, M.R. Mosquera-Losada, M.Pinto-Tobalina and A. Rigueiro-Rodriguez.
The effect of prunning intensity on acorn production in holm-oak "dehesa", R. Alejano, J.Alaegos, E.Torres, J.A. Foreno, R. Tapias and M. Fernandez.
The effect of tree density on pasture yield, H.Arani
An alternative to improve goat production in the mountain areas of north-west Tunisia, A.Boubaker, C.Kayouli and A. Buldgen.
Seasonal fodder biomass production of palo dulce and tepozan, D. Camacho-Morfin, C. Sandoval-Castro, A.Ayala-Burgos and L. Morfin-Loyden.
Pruning infulence on acorn yield in cork-oak open woodland, > Carnellas, S.Roig and G.Montero.
Effects of grazing on fuel biomass in mountain pastures of the south-eastern Pyrenees, C. Dal Sennaro, J.M. Arenas, G.Argenti, A. Pardini and T.M. Sebastia.
Seed production and influence of hed on the germination of Genista scorpius (L.) DC, I. Delgado, M.J. Ochoa and F. Munoz.
Lithium chloride and ipecacuanha syrup to induce sheep aversion to intake of coffee plants, C.A Durantes, J.A. Torres, P.A. Martinez R. Castro, A.Arroyo and J.G. Cruz.
Dispersed trees in pasturelands of cattle farms in a dry ecosystem of Costa Rica, H. Esquivel, M.Ibrahim, C.A. Harvey, C.Villanueva, F.L. Sinclair and T.Benjamin.
Micropropagation of three clones of Mores alba L. selected for fodder use, J.L Fernandez-Lorenzo, V.Perez, S.Linayo, M.R. Mosquera-Losada and A.Rigueiro-Rodriguez.
Estimating diet selection of goats and sheep grazing on gorse-heathland vegetation with areas of improved pasture, L.M.M. Ferreira, M.Olivan, M.A. Rodriques, U.Garcia and K.Osoro.
Validation of the alkane technique to estimate complex diets in sheep and goats fed on healthland vegetation, L.M.M. Ferreira, M. Olivan, M.A.M. Rodrigues, U.Garcia and K.Osoro
Effects of grazing on Quercus faginea Lam. forest in Navarra (Spain), V.Ferrer, C.Ferrer, A.Broca and M. Maesro.
Effect of breed and stocking rate on live weight changes of goats grazing health-gorse vegetation community, U.Garcia, R. Celaya, B.M Jauregui, A. Martinez and K.Osoro
Response of sheep fed with tropical tree legume foliage and Taiwan grass ( Pennisetum purpureum ), D.Grande, F. Reyes, H.Losada, J. Nahed, N. Romero, G. Valdivieso and F. Perez-Gil.
Nutritional characterization of some Mediterranean forestry resources, A. Hajer, S. Lopez and A. Chermiti.
Behaviour at grazing of calves with Galician Blonde suckler cows, A. Iglesias, J.A. Carballo, A. Lopez and L. Monserrat
Vegetation dynamics of burned heath-gorse communities grazed by sheep or goats, B.M. Jauregui, R. Celaya, U. Garcia and K. Osoro.
Adaptation of herbaceous plant species in the understorey of Pinus brutia , Z. Koukoura and A. Kyriazopoulos.
Transition of an abandoned Dutch agrosilvopastoral landscape to 'new wilderness' by extensive grazing with free-ranging cattle and horses, A.T. Kuiters.
Live fences as a means of sustainable integration of livestock, trees and crops in Segou, Mali, V. Levasseur, A. Niang and A. Olivier.
Comparison of terrestrial and aerial oversowing of ski lanes grazed by sheep in the northern Apennines (central Italy), F. Longhi, A. Pardini, L. Ghiselli and R. Tallarico.
Tree growth and pature production under sewage sludge fertilization, M.L. Lopez-Diaz, M.R. Mosquera-Losada and A. Rigueiro-Rodriguez
Utilization of gorse and heather communities by cattle in mountain grazing, N. Mandaluniz, L.M. Oregui and A. Aldezbal.
Importance of holm-oak ( Quercus ilex ) as a woody food resource in Spanish ibex ( Capra pyrenaica) diet in Mediterranean forest, T. Martinez
Woodland grazing in northern Ireland: effects on botanical diversity and tree regeneration, P. McEvoy and J.H. McAdam.
Application of limited sewage sludge to a young Pinus radiata plantation on acid soil, B. Omil-Ignacio, M.R. Mosquera-Losada, A. Rigueiro-Rodriguez and A. Merino-Garcia.
Effect of season on the ingestive behavior of cattle grazing Leucaena leucocephala , R.L Ortega, H.J. Castillo and P.F. Rivas.
Horse grazing on a mixture of Trifolium brachycalycinum and Cynodon dactylon in firebreaks of Tuscan Maremma (central Italy), A. Pardini and F. Natali.
Dry matter production and nutritive value of cocksfoot ( Dactylis glomerata L.) grown under different light regimes, P.L. Peri, R. J. Lucas and D.J. Moot.
Evaluation of the production of acorns of the oak ( Quercus ilex Lam. ssp. ballota ) from south-west of Extremadura (Spain), M.J. Poblaciones, R. Lopez-Bellido, L. Olea and C. Benito.
Effect of different tree and shrub densities on the form, agronomic performance and quality of Panicum maximum in the Chaqueno Mountains, Bolivia, P.P. del Pozo, R. Rizzo and E. Fernandez.
Effects of management on acorn production and viability in holm-oak dehesas, F.J. Pulido, E. Garcia, J.J. Obrador and M.J. Montero.
Effect of fertilization, tree species, plantation density and sowing mixture on pasture production and soil characteristics in silvopastoral management, A. Rigueiro-Rodriguez, E. Fernandez-Nunez and M.R. Mosquera-Losada.
Structure characterization of Quercus pyrenaica Wild open woodlands in the Spanish Central Mountain.:implications for silvopastoral management, S. Roig, M. Rio, I. Canellas, A. Bravo and G. Montero.
Pasture production under different tree species and spacing in an Atlantic silvopastoral system, M.J. Rozados, M.P. Gonzalez-Hernndez and F.J. Silva-Pando.
Effects of dairy sludge application on pasture production and arbuscular mycorrhizae in a sown meadow established in a hill soil, M.J.Sainz, X.A. Alonso, A. Vilarino and M.E. Lopez-Mosquera.
Forage yield and botanical composition of a hill sown meadow fertilized with dried pelletized broiler litter, M.J. Sainz, M.J. Bande, F. Cabalerio and M.E. Lopez-Mosquera.
Establishment of a bovine/ Quercus silvopastora experiment in lowland Ireland, I. Short, J. McAdam, N. Culleton and G. Douglas.
Integration of horses to orange tree plantations, L. Simon, M.D. Sanchez, M. Hernandez S. Sanchez and C. Mendoza.
Facilitation of tree regeneration in pasture woodland, C. Smit, D. Beguin, A. Buttler and H.Muller-Scharer.
Effect of sheep grazing on coffee quality, J.A. Torres.
The influence of spacing and coppice height on herbage mass and other growth characteristics of Robinia pseudoacacia in a south-eastern USA silvopastoral system, L.J. Unrh Snyder, J.P Mueller, J.M. Luginbuhl and C. Brownie.
Session 3. Ecological implications of the silvpastoral systems: biodiversity and sustainable management
Invited Key notes
How much carbon can be stored in Canadian agroecosystems using a silvopastoral approach?, A.M. Gordon, R.P.F. Naresh and V. Thevathasan.
Silvopastoral systems in Latin America and their contribution to sustainable development and biodiversity, I. Hernandez and M.D. Sanchez.
Compaction and erosion: effects on soil ecology and soil quality, A. Paz Gonzalez and E. Vidal Vazquez.
Indigenous breeds and silvopastoral systems, L. Sanchez.
Silvopastoral systems to prevent soil losses in sustainable livestock systems, Z.G. Acosta, G. Reyes and J.L. Montejo.
Spatial dependence and seasonal patterns of cattle activity, A. Butler, F. Kohler, H. Wagner and F. Gillet
Impacts of cutting and fertilization on pasture systems in the Cantabrian mountain range in Leon province (NW Spain)
Floristic stability of pastures in Sierra Magina nature reserve, Andalusia, Spain, A. Cano-Ortiz, A. Garcia-Fuentes, J.A. Torres, R. Montilla, L. Ruiz, C. Salazar and E. Cano.
Effects of breed and stocking rate on vegetation dynamics and biodiversity in health-gorse communities grazed by goats, R. Celaya, B. M. Jauregui, U. Garcia and K. Osoro.
Biodiversity and dynamics of traditional sylvopastoral systems Galicia (north-west Spain): Cytisus scrubs, T. Cornide, E. Diaz-Vizcaino and M. Casal.
Root density and soil water relationship of a silvopastoral system of the tropical region of Yucatan, Mexico, H.G. Delgado, L.A. Ramirez, J.V. Ku, P.M. Vel&asquez and J.B. Escamilla.
Cover crops effects on plant and insect biodiversity in Western Australina vineyards, A. Dinatale, A. Pardini and G. Argenti.
Live weight changes of sheep and goats grazing a burned heath-gorse vegetation community, U. Garcia, B.M. Jauregui, R. Celaya, A. Martinez and K. Osoro.
Management and ecological implications of silvopastoral systems in the Alps, A.C. Mayer.
Light availability for understorey pasture in holm-oak dehesas, M.J. Montero and G. Moreno.
Consequences of dehesa management on tree-understorey interactions, G. Moreno, J. Obrador, E. Garcia, E. Cubera, M. J. Montero and F. Pulido.
Pasture establishment for extensive systems, M.R. Mosquera-Losada, S. Rodriguez-Barreira and A. Rigueiro-Rodgiguez.
Biological diversity in communities of Erica ciliaris and Erica tetralix: analysis of their spatial and temporal variation, A. Munoz, X.M. Pesqueira, R. Alvarez, O. Reyes and M. Casal
Silvopasture as an approach to reducing nutrient loading of surface water from farms, V.D. Nair and R.S. Kalmbacher.
Some ecological impacts of Quercus rotundifolia trees on the understorey environment in the"montado" agrosilvopastoral system, southern Portugal, J. Nunes, M. Maderia and L. Gazarini.
Soil nutrient status and forage yield at varying distances from trees in four dehesas in Extremadura, Spain, J.J. Obrador and G. Moreno.
Rangeland health assessment in silvopastoral systems of northern Greece, Ch.I. Pantazopoulos, M.S. Vrahnakis, D. Chouvardas, M. Papadimitriou and V.P. Papanastasis
Post-fire ecological and dynamic characterization of shrubland communities in Galicia using structural variables, X.M. Pesqueria, A. Munoz, R. Alvarez, O. Reyes and M. Casal.
Extensive livestock systems as tolls for environmental management: impact of grazing on the vegitation of a protected mountain area, J.L. Riedel, I. Casasus, A. Sanz, M. Blanco, R. Revilla and A. Bernues.
Historical effects of grazing on tree establishment in the Cantabrian lowlands, northern Spain: a dendroecological analysis in two old-growth forests, V. Rozas.
Changes in biodiversity after abandonmenti n dehesa systems in the province of Leon, R. Tarrega, L. Calvo, C. Diez, E. Luis, L. Valbuena and E. Marcos.
Sessin 4. Economics, social and cultural benefits of the silvopastoral systems
Main invited Key note
Silvopastoral management in temperate and Mediterranean areas. Stakes, practices and socio-economic constraints, M. Etienne.
Conservation "matching funds" from working woodlands in California, L. Huntsinger, A. Sulak, R. Standiford and P. Campos-Palacin.
Cultural aspects of silvopastoral systems, I. Ispikoudis and K.M. Sioliou.
Comparative analysis of the EAA/EAF and AAS agroforestry accounting systems: application to a dehesa estate, Y. Rodriquez-Luengo, P. Campos-Palacin and P. Ovando-Pol.
Preliminary analysis of the impact of payment for environmental services on land-use changes: a case study on livestock in Costa Rica, J. Mora, M. Ibrahim, J.Cruz, F. Casasola, M. Rosales and V.A. Holguin.
Adaptation of an agrosilvopastoral system to land-use dynamics: local-level analysis of strategies and practice changes in north-eastern Portugal, J.Alonso and J. Bento
Agropastoral systems in Cholistan, A. Farooq, F. Gulzar, S.A. Safdar, F. Sameera and A. Zulfiqar.
An evolution of the effects of forest conservation on resevoir capacity: a case study in the "Cuerda del Pozo" reservoir (Soria), R. Garcia Diaz, F. Garcia Robredo and P.A Medrano Cena.
Characterization of tree species in silvopastoral systems in the mountain region of Tabasco, Mexico, D. Grande, G. Perez, H. Losada, M. Maldonado, J. Nahed and F. Perez-Gil
Non-wood products in Russia, A.V. Griazkin and T.D. Smelkova
Transhumance and silvopastoral dependence in the Great Himalayan National Park Conservation Area- a landscape-level assessment, P. K. Mathur and B.S. Mehra
Economic, social and cultural benefits of silvopastoral systems in Nigeria, I.O. Oladele.
Ancient wood-pastures in Scotland, M.A. Smith
Environmental and resource economics: would the Delphi method follow a non-iterative process of surveys?, M. Solino.
The infulence of goat grazing on ground vegetation and trees in a forest stand, A. Zingg and P. Kull.
Session 5. Future perspectives on silvopastoral systems in a global context
Main invited Key note
Silvopastoral systems for rual development on a global perspective, A. Pardini.
Invited Key notes
A silvopastoral system for Eastern Europe-based on the example of Poland, K. Boron.
From silvopastoral to silvoarable systems in Europe: sharing concepts, unifying policies, C. Dupraz.
Silvopastoral systems as a forest fire prevention techique, A. Rigueiro-Rodriguez, M.R. Mosquera-Losada, R. Romero-Franco, M.P. Gonzalez-Hernandez and J.J. Villarino-Urtiaga.
Forestry, pastoral systems and multiple use woodland, F. J. Silva-Pando
An assessmetn of the role of grazing in European habitats, R.G.H. Bunce, M. Perez-Soba, B.S. Elbersen and W.K.R.E. Van Wingerden.
Situation and perspectives of silvopastoral systems in Germany, P. Finck, U. Riecken and F. Glaser
Wood-pasture and parkland: overlooked jewels of the English countryside, R. Isted.
Local capabilities development and silvopastoral intervention in Chiapas, Mexico, G. Jimenez-Ferrer, L. Soto-Pinto, J. Nahed-Toral, T. Aleman. B. Ferguson, M. Ibrahim and F. Sinclair.
Silvopastoralism as a land-use option for sustainable development on grassland farms in Northern Ireland, J.H. McAdam.
The potential for agroforestry in the Falklands, J.H. McAdam.
Future perspectives for silvopastoral systems in NW Spain, A. Rigueiro-Rodriguez, M. Rois-Diaz, M. Pinto, A. Oliveira and M.R. Mosquera-Losada.
Outdoor pig production in the Basque country (Spain), R. Ruiz, A. Dominqo and L.M Oregui.
Technology transfer in silvopastoral agroforestry: a toolbox for UK farmers, A.R. Sibbald.
Model and procedures for decision-making in management of diffusion, adoption and improvement process of agroforestry technology, M.J. Suarez Hernandez, G. Hernandez Perez adn R. Suarez Mella.
Declaration for silvopastoralism
Summary- silvopastoral systems conclusions