Includes bibliographical references (p. -276) and index.
List of Figures.
List of Tables.
Series Editor's Preface.
Part I: Correlations:.
1The Domain of Sociolinguistics.
Sociolinguistics and the Sociology of Language.
2. The Variable as a Structural Unit.
Coexistent Systems and Free Variation.
Figures and Tables.
3. Variation and the Tradition of Categoricity.
Langue and Parole.
The Axiom of Categoricity.
Saussure and the Mainstream.
Linguistics without Categoricity.
Categorical Theory and Variation Theory.
Categoricity in other Disciplines.
Part II: Class, Network and Mobility:.
4. Social Class and Sociolinguistic Sampling.
Blue Collar and White Collar.
5. Indexing Social Class.
The Primacy of Occupation as a Determinant of Class.
6. Class Markers.
Spreading the News in Westertown.
Boston "short o".
7. The Effects of Mobility.
Caste and Class.
Mobility in Language Variation.
Hungarian imperative declaratives.
New York (th) and (dh).
Mobility as a Levelling Force.
/a/ -deletion in Sheshatshiu.
/ou/ in Milton Keynes.
The Persistence of Homogenization.
(aw) -Fronting in Canada.
Dialect Laws of Mobility and Isolation.
Some Network studies.
Measures of Network Bonds.
Measures of Network Integration.
10. Linguistic Correlates of Network Integration.
Phonological Markers in Martha's Vineyard.
Grammatical Markers in the Reading playgrounds.
11. Interaction of Network and Other Independent Variables.
The linguistic Limits of Individualization.
Part III: Expressing Sex and Gender:.
13. The Interplay of Biology and Sociology.
Sex and gender.
Gender and grammatical gender.
Some Sex Differences.
Probabilistic, not Absolute, Differences.
Vocal Pitch as a Sex difference.
14. Gender Patterns with Stable Variables.
15. Language, Gender, and Mobility in Two Communities.
Inner city Detroit.
16. Causes of Sex and Gender Differences.
17. Male and Female Speech Patterns in Other Societies.
Limits on Female-male Differences.
Punitive differences in Japan.
The Middle East.
18. Linguistic Evidence for Sex and Gender Differences.
Part IV: Accents in Time:.
Physical and cultural indicators.
Some Linguistic Indicators.
20. The Acquisition of Sociolects.
Labov's six stages.
Development of Stylistic and Social Variants.
Three formative periods.
21. Family and Friends.
Generational Differences in Bilingual Situations.
Parents versus Peers.
22. Declaration of Adolescence.
An Adolescent Majority.
Outer Markings including Slang.
Adolescent networks and linguistic variation.
23. Young Adults in the Talk Market.
The marché linguistique in Montreal.
Auxiliary avoir and être.
Playing the talk market.
Linguistic stability in middle and old age.
24. Changes in Progress.
Real time and apparent time.
Testing the apparent-time hypothesis.
Part V: Adaptive Significance of Language Variation:.
25. The Babelian Hypothesis.
The evidence of subjective reaction tests.
Dialect as a source of conflict.
26. Global Counteradaptivity and Local Adaptivity.
Counter adaptivity and power.
Adaptivity and Community.
27. Dialects in Lower Animals.
Buzzy and Clear white-crowned Sparrows.
The Theory of Genetic Adaptation.
The theory of social adaptation.
28. The Persistence of the Non-Standard.
Status and solidarity.
29. Traditional Theories of the Sources of Diversity.
Variation and Climates.
Variation and Contact.
The prevalence of diversity.
30. A Sociolinguistic Theory of the Sources of Diversity.
Linguistic diversity and Social Strata.
Two Tenets about Standard Dialects.
Naturalness beyond Phonetics.
Two Constraints on Variation in Standard Dialects.
31. Vernacular Roots.
Diffusionist and Structural Explanations.
Problems with the Diffusionist Position.
The Internal-structural Position.
Primitive and Learned Features.
32. Linguistic Variation and Social Identity.