What Is Soil?
How Do Soils Form?
Minerals and Organic Matter.
Size and Organization of Particles.
Surface Reactions and Transfer Processses.
Soil as an Ecosystem.
2. Solids and Pores.
The Coarse Fraction.
The Fine-Earth Fraction.
Particle Size Analysis.
Mode of Formation.
Silicate Minerals of Sand and Silt.
Minerals of the Clay Fraction.
Soil Organic Matter and Humus.
Coarse Organic Materials.
Soil Color and Consistence.
Supplement 2-1: Additional Particle Size Classifications and Methods to Display Data.
Supplement 2-2: Stokes’ Law.
Supplement 2-3: Mineral Formulas and Structures.
Supplement 2-4: Charge in Ions.
3. Liquids and Gases.
Bulk Density and Void Ratio.
Characteristics of Water.
Pore Water Composition.
Soil Water Amounts.
Specific Adsorption Reactions.
Weak Sorption Reactions.
Organic Chemicals and Their Adsorption.
Polar Nonionic Substances.
Supplement 3-1: Measuring CEC.
Supplement 3-2: Example CEC Calculations.
Supplement 3-3: pH.
Supplement 3-4: Partial Pressure and Gas Solubility.
Supplement 3-5: Measuring Bulk Density.
Supplement 3-6: Organic Electrolytes.
4. Soil Climate.
Sunshine: Irradiation and Heating.
Radiant Heating and Heat Dissipation.
Movement of Heat through Soil and Other Media.
Conduction (Diffusive Transfer).
Heat Capacity, Conductivity, and Temperature Gradients.
Turbulence and Heat Flow in Air and Water.
Principles in Action: Controlling Soil Climates.
Summary of Principles.
Seasonal and Geographic Variations in Soil Climate.
Management of Soil Temperature.
Supplement 4-1: Forms of Radiation.
Supplement 4-2: Movement of Heat, Water, Gases, and Solutes.
5. Water in the Soil-Plant System.
Water Storage in Soil.
Water Retention and Capacity.
Water Content and Water Potential.
Modes of Water Movement.
Vapor Flow and Liquid Flow.
Saturated and Unsaturated Liquid Flow in Soil.
Water Flow in Stratified Soils.
Principles of Water Movement.
Forces That Move Water.
Water Potential and Water Movement.
Factors Affecting Water Potentials.
Potential Differences and Gradients.
Constraints to Water Movement.
Conductivity in Soil.
Conductivity in Soil-Plant Systems.
Water Stress in Plants.
Factors Controlling Evaporation and Transpiration.
Measurement of Water Use.
Supplement 5-1: Capillarity.
6. Managing Soil Water.
Water Management Concepts.
Water Extraction and Infiltration Patterns.
Extraction by Plants.
Flood and Furrow Irrigation.
Sprinkler and Drip Irrigation.
Water Use Efficiency.
Growth per Unit of Water Applied (or Available).
Yield Efficiency and Economic Efficiency.
7. Soil Organisms.
Kinds of Organisms in Soil.
Proliferation, Spread, and Survival.
Requirements and Adaptations of Microbes.
Plants and Their Roots.
Protozoa and Algae.
Constraints and Adaptations.
Acidity, Salinity, and Other Chemical Inhibitors.
Nutritional Constraints: Nitrogen.
Nutritional Constraints: Energy and Carbon.
Associations of Microorganisms with Plants.
Root Pathogens and Parasites.
Symbioses between Plants and Soil Microorganisms.
Supplement 7-1: Rhizobium-Legume Symbioses.
Supplement 7-2: Mycorrhizae.
Supplement 7-3: Nutritional Adaptations.
8. Microbial Processes.
Decomposition of Organic Matter.
General Process of Organic Matter Decay.
Carbon Dioxide Production and Oxygen Consumption.
Release and Immobilization of N and Other Nutrients.
Decay Rates and Controlling Factors.
Managing Soil Organic Matter.
Oxidation of Ammonium, Sulfur, Iron, and Manganese.
Requirements and Consequences.
Depleting of Oxygen: Reducing Conditions.
Carbon and Nitrogen Cycles.
Carbon Cycling in the Soil-Plant System.
Nitrogen Cycling in the Soil-Plant System.
Nitrogen Cycling and Soil Fertility.
Biodegradation of Chemicals in Soil.
Biodegradation, Sorption, and Diffusion.
Supplement 8-1: Biological Compounds.
Supplement 8-2: Oxidation and Reduction.
9. Mineral Nutrients in Soils and Plants.
Nutrient Elements in Plants.
Elemental Composition of Plants.
Forms and Functions of Nutrients in Plants.
Uptake and Movement of Nutrients within Plants.
Retention and Release of Nutrients in Soil.
Soil Solution and Solid Nutrient Reserves.
Movement of Ions to Roots.
Significance and Processes.
Nutrient Transport Rates.
Nutrient Mobility in Soil.
Root Growth and Development.
Characteristics and Functions of Root Systems.
Factors Affecting Root Development.
Nutrient Availability and Deficiency.
Supplement 9-1: Nutrient Elements in Plants.
Supplement 9-2: Nutrient Reserves and Release in Soil.
Supplement 9-3: Nutrient Availability and Soil pH.
10. Managing Plant Nutrients.
Common Fertilizer Materials.
Comparisons and Choices.
Determining Fertilizer Needs: Deficiency Diagnosis.
Kinds of Diagnoses.
Nurtrient Response Experiments with Plants.
Supplemental Diagnostic Procedures.
Fertilizer Efficiency and Nutrient Conservation.
Methods and Timing of Fertilizer Application.
Nutrient Cycling and the Control of Losses.
Improving Nutrient Efficiency of Plants.
Supplement 10-1: Fertilizers: Specifications and Calculations.
11. Acidity and Salinity.
Acidity and Related Problems.
Nature and Causes.
Effects of Acidity, Al, and Mn.
Management of Soil Acidity.
Salinity and Related Problems.
Nature and Causes.
Effects of Salinity, Sodicity, and Alkalinity.
Management of Saline and Sodic Soils.
Supplement 11-1: Acids, Bases, and Exchangeable Bases.
Supplement 11-2: Aluminum and Manganese Reactions.
Supplement 11-3: Acidifying and Alkalinizing Reactions.
Supplement 11-4: pH Buffering and Lime Requirements.
Supplement 11-5: Diagnostic Tests.
Supplement 11-6: Salt, Cations, and Colloid Dispersion.
Supplement 11-7: Acid Precipitation in Cool, Humid Forests.
12. Soil Genesis.
Factors of Soil Formation.
People as Soil Formers.
A Soil Formation Equation.
Soil-Forming Factors: Some Interactions.
Processes of Soil Formation.
Supplement 12-1: Acidification.
Supplement 12-2: Solution.
Supplement 12-3: Clay Formation.
13. Soil Information.
Kinds of Soil Information.
Collecting and Displaying Information.
Making a Soil Map.
Geographic Data Handling.
Supplement 13-1: Section-Range System.
Supplement 13-2: Orders of the Soil Survey.
14. Organizing Soils Information.
Why Organize Information?
Kinds of Organization.
USDA Land Capabillity Classification.
Timber and Range Site Indices.
Supplement 14-1: Suborders: An Example.
Supplement 14-2: The Canadian and FAO Soil Classification Systems.
Supplement 14-3: The Storie Index System.
15. Soil Degradation.
Gravity Erosion (Mass Wasting).
Surface Crusts and Seals.
Nature of the Problem.
Contaminant Interactions with Soil.
Treating Contaminated Soils.
Control of Physical Degradation.
Organic Soil Degradation.
16. Nonagricultural Uses of Soils.
Waste Disposal on Soils.
Recreation and Construction.
Reclaimed and Artificial Soils.
Turf and Golf Greens.
Supplement 16-1: Perc Test.
Supplement 16-2: Suitability Criteria for Recreation.
Supplement 16-3: Suitability Criteria for Construction