I Introduction: Analyzing Primary Sources
History and Prehistory
Primary and Secondary Sources
Doing History: Context and Interpretation
I-1 Cah of Tahnab, Petition to the Viceroy of Mexico, 1605
I-2 The Peoples of the Islands Recently Discovered, 1505 1 The Earliest Human Societies to 2500 B.C.E.
Viewpoints: Origins of the World
1-1 Aborigines of Australia, Yhi Brings Life to the World, ca. 1965
1-2 Kono of Western Africa, On the Origin of Death, ca. 2001
1-3 Yuchi Tribe of North America, On the Origin of Death, ca. 1929
1-4 Hesiod, From Theogony, ca. 700 B.C.E.
1-5 Double Burial from Mantua, Italy, ca. B.C.E.
1-6 Algerian Cave Painting, Date Unknown
Comparative Questions 2 The Rise of the State in Southwest Asia and the Nile Valley, 3200-500 B.C.E.
2-1 From The Epic of Gilgamesh, ca. 2700-2500 B.C.E.
2-2 Hammurabi, Hammurabi's Code: Selections on Law, Sex, and Society, ca. 1800 B.C.E.
2-3 Nebmare-nakht, Advice to Ambitious Young Egyptians from a Royal Scribe, ca. 1350-1200 B.C.E.
2-4 Hymn to the Nile, ca. 1350-1100 B.C.E.
2-5 Book of Exodus: Moses Leads the Hebrews from Egypt, ca. 950-450 B.C.E.
Viewpoints: Propaganda in the Ancient Near East
2-6 Ashur-Nasir-Pal II, An Assyrian Emperor's Resumé, ca. 875 B.C.E.
2-7 An Audience with the “King of Kings,” 515-485 B.C.E.
3 The Foundation of Indian Society to 300 C.E.
3-1 From Rigveda, ca. 600 B.C.E.
Viewpoints: What is Ultimate Reality?
3-2 The Buddha, The Buddha Obtains Enlightenment, ca. 530-29 B.C.E.
3-3 From the Upanishads: On the Nature of the Soul, ca. 450 B.C.E.
3-4 From the Mahabharata: Selections from the Bhagavad Gita, 500 B.C.E.- 500 C.E.
3-5 From The Laws of Manu, ca. 100 B.C.E. -200 C.E.
3-6 Ashoka, From Thirteenth Rock Edict, 256 B.C.E.
3-7 Naga Relief from the Ajanta Caves, ca. 200 B.C.E. - 400 C.E.
Comparative Questions 4 China's Classical Age to 221 B.C.E.
4-1 Shang Oracle Bones, ca. 1200-1050 B.C.E.
4-2 From Book of Documents, ca. 900-100 B.C.E.
Viewpoints: How Society Should Function
4-3 Confucius, From Analects, ca. 500 B.C.E.-50 C.E.
4-4 Laozi, From Dao De Jing: Administering the Empire, ca. 500-400 B.C.E.
4-5 Han Fei, The Five Vermin, ca. 250-25 B.C.E.
4-6 Anecdotes from the Warring States Period, ca. 206-1 B.C.E.
5 The Greek Experience, 3500-100 B.C.E.
5-1 Homer, From Iliad: Achilles's Anger and Its Consequences, ca. 750 b.c.e.
5-2 Lysias, On the Murder of Eratosthenes, ca. 403-380 B.C.E.
5-3 Plato, From Apologia, ca. 399 B.C.E.
5-4 Aristotle, From Politics, ca. 340 B.C.E.
5-5 Herodotus, From Histories: On Sparta, ca. 450-420 B.C.E.
Viewpoints: Depicting the Human Form
5-6 Zeus from Artemisium, ca. 460 B.C.E.
5-7 The Dying Gaul, ca. 230-220 B.C.E.
6 The World of Rome, 750 B.C.E.-400 C.E.
6-1 The Twelve Tables, ca. 450 B.C.E.
6-2 Cicero, The Defense of Marcus Caelius Rufus: Description of Clodia, 56 B.C.E.
6-3 Plutarch, On Julius Caesar, A Man of Unlimited Ambition, ca. 44 C.E.
6-4 Tacitus, From The Annals: On the Legacy of Augustus, 98 C.E.
6-5 Jesus of Nazareth, Sermon on the Mount (Matthew, Chapter 5), ca. 30 C.E.
Viewpoints: Christianity and the Roman State
6-6 Pliny the Younger, Trajan, Letters to and from the Emperor Trajan on Christians, 111-113 C.E.
6-7 Tertullian, From Apologia, ca. 197 C.E.
7 East Asia and the Spread of Buddhism, ca. 221 B.C.E.-800 C.E.
7-1 Sima Qian, From the Records of the Historian: On the Ziongnu, ca. 109-86 B.C.E.
7-2 Ban Zhao, From Admonitions for Women, ca. 80 C.E.
7-3 Fa-Hsiean, From A Record of Buddhistic Kingdoms, ca. 399-414
7-4 Prince Toneri, From Chronicles of Japan: Emperor Jinmu, ca. 720
Viewpoints: Buddhism in China
7-5 Buddha Preaching, ca. 501-580 C.E.
7-6 From Lives of the Eminent Monks: Zhu Seng Du, ca. 550 C.E.
7-7 Emperor Wuzong, Edict on the Suppression of Buddhism, 845 C.E.
8 Continuity and Change in Europe and Western Asia, 200-850
8-1 Egeria, Good Friday in Jerusalem, ca. 381-384
8-2 Saint Augustine, From City of God: A Denunciation of Paganism, ca. 413-426
8-3 Saint Benedict of Nursia, The Rule of Saint Benedict: Work and Pray, 529
8-4 Zachariah of Mitylene, From Syriac Chronicle, ca. 569
Viewpoints: Justinian's Deeds and His Critics
8-5 Procopius, From The Secret History, ca. 550-562
8-6 Hagia Sophia, 537
8-7 Einhard, From The Life of Charlemagne, 829-836
9 The Islamic World, 600-1400
Viewpoints: Islam and the People of the Book
9-1 Muhammad, Qur'an: Muslim Devotion to God, ca. 650
9-2 Muhammad, The Constitution of Medina: Muslims and Jews at the Dawn of Islam, ca. 625
9-3 Abraham ben Yiju, From Cairo Geniza: Letter to Joseph, 1153
9-4 Benjamin Ben Jonah of Tudela, From Book of Travels, ca. 1159-1172
9-5 Courtyard of the Virgins, the Alcazar of Seville, ca. 1200-1364
9-6 Ibn Khaldûn, From Prolegomenon to History: On Shi'ite Succession, 1377
Comparative Questions 10 African Societies and Kingdoms, 1000 B.C.E.-1500 C.E.
10-1 Ezana, King of Aksum, Stele of Ezana, ca. 325
Viewpoints: Outsiders' Views of Sub-Saharan Africa
10-2 Abu Ubaydallah al-Bakri, From The Book of Routes and Realms, ca. 1067-1068
10-3 Abu Hamid Muhammad al-Andulusi al-Gharnati, From Gift of the Spirit, ca. 1120-1170
10-4 Ibn Battuta, From Travels in Asia and Africa, ca. 1325-1354
10-5 From Epic of Sundiata, ca. 1250
10-6 Sankore Mosque, Timbuktu, ca. 1400
Comparative Questions 11 The Americas, 2500 B.C.E. -1500 C.E.
11-1 Stele 4, Ixtutz, Guatemala, 780
11-2 Maize Grinder Effigy Pipe, ca. 1200
11-3 Pedro de Cieza de Leon, From Chronicles: On the Inca, ca. 1535
11-4 Diego Duran, From Book of the Gods and Rites, ca. 1576-1579
Viewpoints: The Importance of the Ball Game in Mayan Society
11-5 Antonio de Herrera y Tordessillas, On the Maya Ball Game Tlachtli, ca. 1598
11-6 Father Francisco Ximenez, From the Popul Vuh, ca. 1701-1703
Comparative Questions 12 Cultural Exchange in Central and Southern Asia, to 1400
12-1 From The Secret History of the Mongols, ca. 1227-1251
Viewpoints: The Mongols and Their Conquests
12-2 Epitaph for the Honorable Menggu, ca. 1272
12-3 Liu Guandao, Khabilai Khan Hunting, 1280
12-4 Marco Polo, From Travels: Description of the World, ca. 1298
12-5 Vatsyayana, From the Kamasutra: About a Wife, ca. 150-1200
12-6 Maulana Burhan ud-din Marghinani, From Guidance: Alms, Marriage, and Testimony, ca. 1197
Comparative Questions 13 States and Cultures in East Asia, 800-1400
Viewpoints: Feudalism and Society in Medieval Japan
13-1 Murasaki Shikibu, From The Tale of Genji, ca. 1021
13-2 From The Tale of the Heike, ca. 1250
13-3 Ma Yuan, Song Dynasty Landscape, ca. 1100-1130
13-4 Chau Ju-Kua, On the Arab People of Quanzhou, ca. 1250
13-5 Statistical Tables on Chinese Civil Service Exams, 2000
13-6 Widows Loyal Unto Death, ca. 1754
Comparative Questions 14 Europe in the Middle Ages, 850-1450
Viewpoints: The Crusades
14-1 From Domesday Book, 1085-1086
14-2 Fulcher of Chartes, From A History of the Expedition to Jerusalem: The Call for Crusade, ca. 1100-1127
14-3 Nicetas Choniates, From Annals, 1118-1207
14-4 Zakariya al-Qazwini, From Monuments of the Lands: An Islamic View of the West, 1275-1276
14-5 Chrétien de Troyes, From The Knight of the Cart, 1177-1181
14-6 King John of England, From Magna Carta: The Great Charter of Liberties, 1215
14-7 Thomas Aquinas, From Summa Theological: Can It Be Demonstrated That God Exists?, 1268
Comparative Questions 15 Europe in the Renaissance and Reformation, 1350-1600
Viewpoints: The Intellectual Origins of the Renaissance
15-1 Petrarch, Letters, ca. 1354, 1360
15-2 Pico della Mirandola, From On the Dignity of Man, 1486
15-3 Meo di Betto and Benedetto di Meio, A Tuscan Peasant's Memoir, 1450-1453
15-4 Niccolò Machiavelli, From The Prince: Power Politics During the Italian Renaissance, 1513
15-5 Martin Luther, From Address to the Christian Nobility of the German Nation, 1520
15-6 John Calvin, From Instruction in Faith, 1537
Comparative Questions 16 The Acceleration of Global Contact, 1450-1600
16-1 Zheng He, Stele Inscription, 1431
Viewpoints: Exploration and Its Material Advantages
16-2 Christopher Columbus, Letter from the Third Voyage, 1493
16-3 King Dom Manuel of Portugal, Grant of Rights of Trade, 1500
16-4 Bartolomé de Las Casas, From Brief Account of the Devastation of the Indies, 1542
16-5 Bernal Díaz del Castillo, From The True History of the Conquest of New Spain, 1568
16-6 From The Florentine Codex, ca. 1577-1580
16-7 Matteo Ricci, From China in the Sixteenth Century, ca. 1607