Synopses & Reviews
American Warlords is the story of the greatest team of rivals” since the days of Lincoln.
In a lifetime shaped by politics, President Franklin D. Roosevelt proved himself a master manipulator of Congress, the press, and the public. But when war in Europe and Asia threatened Americas shores, FDR found himself in a world turned upside down, where his friends became his foes, his enemies his allies. To help wage democracys first total war,” he turned to one of historys most remarkable triumvirates.
Henry Stimson, an old-money Republican from Long Island, rallied to FDRs banner to lead the Army as Secretary of War, and championed innovative weapons that shape our world today. General George C. Marshall argued with Roosevelt over grand strategy, but he built the worlds greatest war machine and willingly sacrificed his dream of leading the invasion of Europe that made his protégé, Dwight Eisenhower, a legend. Admiral Ernest J. King, a hard-drinking, irascible fighter who destroyed” Pearl Harbor in a prewar naval exercise, understood how to fight Japan, but he also battled the Army, the Air Force, Douglas MacArthur, and his British allies as they moved armies and fleets across the globe.
These commanders threw off sparks whenever they clashed: Generals against politicians, Army versus Navy. But those sparks lit the fire of victory. During four years of bitter warfare, FDRs lieutenants learned to set aside deep personal, political, and professional differences and pull a nation through the twentieth century's darkest days.
Encircling Roosevelts warlordsand sometimes bitterly at odds with themwas a colorful cast of the Second World Wars giants: Winston Churchill, MacArthur, Josef Stalin, Eisenhower, Eleanor Roosevelt, and Charles de Gaulle. These and other larger-than-life figures enrich a sweeping story of an era brimming with steel, fire, and blood.
Drawing upon a wealth of primary sources, American Warlords goes behind closed doors to give readers an intimate, often surprising view of titans who led America from isolation to the summit of global power. Written in a robust, engaging style, author Jonathan W. Jordan offers a vivid portrait of four extraordinary Americans in the eye of wars hurricane.
"This is history as it should be written. Award-winning historian Roberts, a master storyteller, combines a comprehensive command of sources, a sophisticated analytical dimension, and fingertip balance between great events and their personal dimensions. At the center of this 'world-historical global cataclysm' was Adolf Hitler. Roberts presents the war as defined by Hitler's mistakes: 'so heinous that he should have committed suicide out of sheer embarrassment....' Roberts (Masters and Commanders) says Hitler started the war before Germany was ready. He waged it with resources too limited for his grandiose objectives. He administered it through policies that made the Reich an enduring stench in the nostrils. Japan's war in the Pacific was no less ugly. Yet defeating the Axis required the strengths of three great powers. Roberts describes an Allied strategy shaped by the necessity of developing armed forces to match their foes. Britain kept the field in the war's darkest days. The U.S.S.R. drowned the Reich in 'oceans of blood.' America provided machines, money, and manpower over 16 million in uniform. These synergized efforts were sufficient barely sufficient, says Roberts. At every turn contingencies shaped outcomes that might have been very different absent the skill, will, and desperation demonstrated by the Grand Coalition. 4 pages of b&w photos; maps. (June)" Publishers Weekly (Starred Review) Copyright PWxyz, LLC. All rights reserved.
“Robertss narrative gifts are such that it is almost impossible to read his retelling of these nightmares without some feeling of encountering the new. No history book can ever truly be definitive, but this comes close. Roberts never loses sight of the human side of this epic.” < b=""> < i=""> National Review <> <>
"Roberts underscores the factors that affected the war's outcome and raises a number of intriguing questions. . . . Accessible, meticulously researched, and executed with clarity." < b=""> < i=""> The Tucson Citizen <> <>
“Elegantly balances fact, thought and fresh, clear prose. . . . Roberts has set a high bar for future historians of mankinds greatest bloodbath; Roberts splendidly weaves a human tragedy into a story of wars remorseless statistics.” < b=""> < i=""> The Wall Street Journal <> <>
“Andrew Roberts achieves a marvel of concision in producing a splendidly written, comprehensive new history of the greatest conflict in history, The Storm of Warparticularly good in its insights into Axis strategy.” < b=""> Sir Ian Kershaw, < i=""> The Guardian <> , Books of the Year <>
“In what might be his best book yet, Roberts gives us the war as seen from the other side of the hill. He has the knack of making complex military operations comprehensible and salting the grand strategic sweep with vignettes of how it felt to be a soldier.” < b=""> Nigel Jones, < i=""> The Sunday Telegraph <> <>
"Andrew Roberts's latest offering is a sparkling addition to the groaning shelves. Roberts offers refreshing judgments on the politicians and commanders in lively prose and his denunciation of the murder of millions of Jews is as measured as it is moving." < b=""> Robert Service, < i=""> The Observer <> <>
"Roberts's book is tightly written, every page packed with terse comment, well-organised facts and, often, telling details. Engrossing to read." < b=""> Paul Johnson, < i=""> The Spectator <> <>
“Gripping. . . . splendid history. A brilliantly clear and accessible account of the war in all its theaters. Robertss prose is unerringly precise and strikingly vivid. It is hard to imagine a better-told military history of World War II.” < b=""> Timothy Snyder, < i=""> The New York Times Book Review <> <>
“A magnificent book;It manages to be distinctive but not eccentric, comprehensive in scope but not cramped by detail, giving due weight both to the extraordinary personalities and to the blind economic and physical forces involved.” < b=""> < i=""> The Economist <> <>
“Roberts is a great historian because of a rare triune mastery: of the movement of history, in both its broad sweep and particular revelatory detail; a felicitous prose style and gift for narrative; and a commanding moral vision.” < b=""> Roger Kimball, < i=""> The Daily <> <>
“Roberts is a first-rate historian. He has a sharp eye for a good subject and a knack of getting to its heart. The second world war, which cost more than 50 million lives, has a perennial fascination that Roberts conveys through an admirably lucid narrative.” < b=""> Piers Brendon, < i=""> The Sunday Times <> <>
"Many World War II books require numerous volumes and thousands of pages. But by marching across huge spans of time and territory with the eye of a determined battlefield soldier, British historian Roberts packs the whole war into one 768-page volume." < i=""> < b=""> The New York Post <> <>
“With his new book on the Second World War, British historian Andrew Roberts has not only written the single best history of that conflict but has also claimed his place as one of our top historians.” < b=""> Michael Korda, < i=""> The Daily Beast <> <>
"Roberts has produced a lucid narrative stream that makes his book flow like a novel. I couldn't put it down." < i=""> < b=""> The Shreveport Times <> <>
"A concise but comprehensive history that gets to the heart of one mankind's greatest struggles. . . . Thanks to Roberts's mastery of substance, style, and, yes, statistics, readers can now enjoy a one-volume history of that war that is far superior to most of the works preceding it." < b=""> < i=""> The American Spectator <> <>
"Roberts gives readers a new, well-written retelling of the spectacular ebb and flow of World War II. . . .A well-sourced and well-told introduction for general readers that will also be enjoyed by those in the know." < b=""> < i=""> Library Journal <> (starred review) <>
“In one irresistibly readable book, Roberts has done what I thought was impossible--given us the whole bloody second world war from the brass buttons of the generals down to the mud-filled trenches and stretching across the globe.” < b=""> Tina Brown, < i=""> Newsweek <> <>
“The best full history of World War II yet written.” < b=""> Simon Sebag Montefiore, < i=""> The Wall Street Journal <> <>
"Franklin D. Rooseveltand#8217;s role as commander in chief of the military during World War II has not been covered as much as other aspects of his presidency. Hamilton (senior fellow, McCormack Graduate Sch., Univ. of Massachusetts-Boston; JFK: Reckess Youth) is well qualified to remedy that, showing how FDR worked with individuals and nations. He blasts Winston Churchilland#8217;s colonialist values, poor selection of military leaders, and constant meddling in their tactical plans, as well as Douglas MacArthurand#8217;s vanity and failure to prepare for a Japanese attack, but shows that FDR appreciated both men as fighters. Hamilton presents FDR as a serious student of world affairs who learned from his six years as assistant secretary of the navy. Unlike most books on Henry Stimson, FDRand#8217;s secretary of war, and George C. Marshall, his chief of staff of the army, Hamiltonand#8217;s work critiques them for their opposition to Operation Torch in French North Africa in 1942, opposition that was near mutiny against the president. Marshalland#8217;s disagreement, Hamilton charges, cost him command of the Normandy invasion: FDR brought Adm. William Leahy out of retirement to be chairman of the combined chiefs of staff, putting the Pentagon in its place just as he did the Axis powers. VERDICT This convincingly written and gripping volume is essential for historians, political scientists, and history buffs, for a deeper understanding of the principle of civilian supremacy of the military in the U.S. political system." and#8212;Library Journal
, STARRED review
"Accomplished biographer Hamilton (Biography: A Brief History) delivers an analysis of President Franklin Roosevelt in the role of Commander-in-Chief through the first two years of WWII. The author follows his subject through 14 pivotal periods of the early war years and demonstrates that F.D.R. frequently trusted his own judgment over the advice of the military professionals who surrounded him. Central to the book and its thesis is the contest of wills between F.D.R. and his group of distinguished military advisors regarding the proposed invasion of North Africa in 1942, which was aggressively opposed by General Marshall and Secretary of War Stimson. This decision almost resulted in a and#8220;mutinyand#8221; against the President. Events ultimately vindicated the Presidentand#8217;s decision and firmly established his talent for grand strategy. Though itand#8217;s a weighty tome, and is based extensively on Rooseveltand#8217;s own notes, Hamilton keeps a brisk pace throughout to produce what will likely be seen as a definitive volume on this aspect of Rooseveltand#8217;s career and essential reading for anyone interested in WWII, the Roosevelt Presidency, and presidential leadership." and#8212;Publishers Weekly
"FDR has frequently been underestimated as a military leader, yielding, in the historical imagination, to George Marshall and Winston Churchill, among others. Nigel Hamilton attacks this view with his characteristic verve, portraying a president with the reins of war fully, if often subtly, in his hands. The conventional wisdom will never be the same." and#8212; H.W. Brands, author of Traitor to His Class: The Privileged Life and Radical Presidency of Franklin Delano Roosevelt and#160; "Nigel Hamiltonand#8217;s Mantle of Command is a stirring and noteworthy book about Rooseveltand#8217;s crucial role as commander-in-chief during World War II. Hamilton writes with insight, passion, and a great grasp of history. I believe this book will become the standard by which other books about FDRand#8217;s role in World War II will be measured." and#8212; Carlo Dand#8217;Este, author of Patton: A Genius for War and Warlord: A Life of Churchill at War, 1874and#8211;1945 and#160; "This is not the Roosevelt (or Churchill) you'd expect. From the start, an aggressive, in-charge FDR emerges from a wonderful weaving of established scholarship and the fascinating bits and pieces that make history live. Churchill is an inspirational nag, with a busy, unfocused strategic vision. A key entry into the ongoing debate over who made grand strategy in the early war years and#8212; Roosevelt or Churchill?" and#8212; Warren F. Kimball, author of Forged in War: Roosevelt, Churchill, and the Second World War and#160; "Nigel Hamilton in Mantle of Command presents a very different wartime Franklin Delano Roosevelt than the one we are used to seeing. Whether or not one agrees with all his conclusions, Hamilton clearly shows that FDR was an extremely strong and effective commander-in-chief. This volume should go a long way to dispelling popular myths about Roosevelt as a naand#239;ve and weak war leader." and#8212; Mark Stoler, editor of the George C. Marshall Papers and Professor Emeritus of History, University of Vermont
"Nigel Hamilton has written a spirited and thoughtful and#8216;revisionistand#8217; study of Franklin Delano Roosevelt as commander-in-chief during the first phase of U.S. involvement in the Second World War. Hamiltonand#8217;s narrative skill brings alive the human dramas, logistic hurdles, and strategic debates to show how FDRand#8217;s indispensable drive and forward-looking leadership tamed his own and#8216;team of rivalsand#8217; and set the United States and its Allies on the road to victory over the Axis. The books enlivens the often murky worlds of bureaucratic struggle and military detail to demonstrate how important it was for the United States to and#8216;get it rightand#8217; early in the war and how FDR accomplished this." and#8212; Michael Schaller, author of Douglas MacArthur and Regents Professor of History, University of Arizona
"A popular biographer of various twentieth-century leaders, Hamilton here addresses a seemingly exhausted subject. Not so, he avers. FDRand#8217;s leadership as commander-in-chief is a space Hamilton offers to fill with this work. The first of two projected volumes, it chronologically extends from FDRand#8217;s August 1941 meeting with Churchill to the November 1942 Allied landings in French North Africa. Thematically, Hamilton depicts FDRand#8217;s assertion of his authority over American army and navy chiefs and, increasingly over time, Churchill. Palpably gleeful when pinpointing unflattering episodes these figures omitted from their memoirs, Hamilton is tantamount to the amanuensis for the memoir FDR never wrote. The portrait that emerges is complimentary and praises FDR as a strategist superior both to fellow Allies and to Axis enemies. He insisted MacArthur fight in the Philippines, he rejected British requests to defend India, he refuted his military officersand#8217; proposals to invade France and to concentrate on Japan, and he ordered them to carry out Operation Torch, the North African invasion. Well researched and confident in its conclusions, Hamiltonand#8217;s study ably augments the gallery of WWII leaders."--Booklist
and#160;"A deeply engrossing study of the first year of Franklin Rooseveltand#8217;s prescient military leadership in World War II.
Consummate biographer Hamilton (How to Do Biography: A Primer, 2008, etc.) ably captures the charming, astute personality of FDR, especially his role as foil to the dogged, imperious Winston Churchill. Considering that so many facets of the Roosevelt era have already been amply scrutinized, it is to Hamiltonand#8217;s considerable credit that he manages to impart singular, fresh nuance and depth to his hero. Hamilton aims to set the record straight on three counts: First, despite the postwar preening by his generals, FDR had fended off various defeatist and ineffectual proposals after the attack on Pearl Harbor and held firm to the necessity of a quick reprisal in the Pacific to check Japanand#8217;s further incursions into the Indian Ocean. Subsequently, working with the British (and against a near-mutiny of his generals), FDR seized on a massive combined force in northwest Africa, which would become Operation Torch, to pincer the Germans under Erwin Rommel, thus opening up a second front, to the delight of the Russians. Second, Hamilton aims to emphasize how important it was to FDR, a born aristocrat yet man of the people, that he and Churchill hammer out an understanding that the Americans would enter the war not to help Britain prop up its collapsing empire; on the contrary, FDR touched this sore spot frequently, such as by pressuring Churchill to let the beleaguered Indians fight for their self-determination. Finally, Hamilton wonderfully delineates FDRand#8217;s ability to elicit news from his many and#8220;eyes and earsand#8221; in the fieldand#8212;in opposition to the Victorian, prideful Churchill. However, as the author portrays through Churchilland#8217;s extended White House Christmas visit in 1941, the two leaders learned a great deal from each other.
Lively, elucidating, elegant and highly knowledgeable."--Kirkus, STARRED review
andquot;The Mantle of Command
is splendid: Itandrsquo;s the memoir Roosevelt didnandrsquo;t get to write.andquot;
andmdash;New York Times Book Reviewand#160;andquot;Masterly.andquot;
andmdash;Wall Street Journaland#160;andquot;FDR has frequently been underestimated as a military leader, yielding, in the historical imagination, to George Marshall and Winston Churchill, among others. Nigel Hamilton attacks this view with his characteristic verve, portraying a president with the reins of war fully, if often subtly, in his hands. The conventional wisdom will never be the same.andquot;
andmdash;H.W. Brands, author of Traitor to His Class: The Privileged Life and Radical Presidency of Franklin Delano Roosevelt
andquot;Nigel Hamiltonandrsquo;s Mantle of Command is a stirring and noteworthy book about Rooseveltandrsquo;s crucial role as commander-in-chief during World War II. Hamilton writes with insight, passion, and a great grasp of history. I believe this book will become the standard by which other books about FDRandrsquo;s role in World War II will be measured.andquot; andmdash; Carlo Dandrsquo;Este, author of Patton: A Genius for War and Warlord: A Life of Churchill at War, 1874andndash;1945
andquot;This is not the Roosevelt (or Churchill) youand#39;d expect. From the start, an aggressive, in-charge FDR emerges from a wonderful weaving of established scholarship and the fascinating bits and pieces that make history live. Churchill is an inspirational nag, with a busy, unfocused strategic vision. A key entry into the ongoing debate over who made grand strategy in the early war years andmdash; Roosevelt or Churchill?andquot; andmdash; Warren F. Kimball, author of Forged in War: Roosevelt, Churchill, and the Second World War
andquot;Nigel Hamilton in Mantle of Command presents a very different wartime Franklin Delano Roosevelt than the one we are used to seeing. Whether or not one agrees with all his conclusions, Hamilton clearly shows that FDR was an extremely strong and effective commander-in-chief. This volume should go a long way to dispelling popular myths about Roosevelt as a naandiuml;ve and weak war leader.andquot;
andmdash; Mark Stoler, editor of the George C. Marshall Papers and Professor Emeritus of History, University of Vermont
andquot;Nigel Hamilton has written a spirited and thoughtful andlsquo;revisionistandrsquo; study of Franklin Delano Roosevelt as commander-in-chief during the first phase of U.S. involvement in the Second World War. Hamiltonandrsquo;s narrative skill brings alive the human dramas, logistic hurdles, and strategic debates to show how FDRandrsquo;s indispensable drive and forward-looking leadership tamed his own andlsquo;team of rivalsandrsquo; and set the United States and its Allies on the road to victory over the Axis. The books enlivens the often murky worlds of bureaucratic struggle and military detail to demonstrate how important it was for the United States to andlsquo;get it rightandrsquo; early in the war and how FDR accomplished this.andquot;
andmdash;Michael Schaller, author of Douglas MacArthur and Regents Professor of History, University of Arizona
Praise for Jonathan W. Jordans Brothers Rivals Victors:
“Brothers Rivals Victors is a landmark publication in the history of the Second World War...Jordan has written a real historical tour de force. Highly recommended!”—Douglas Brinkley, Professor of History at Rice University and author of The Boys of Pointe du Hoc
“One of the great stories of the American military…told here by Jonathan Jordan with insight and compassion, relish, and vigor.”—Thomas E. Ricks, author of Fiasco, Making the Corps, and The Gamble
“Anybody who believes that generals are just, rational men, imbued with a soldierly feeling of comradeship toward one another and an ingrained respect for their political superiors, will be shocked by this book.”—Michael Korda, The New York Times Book Review
“Intimate, well-researched, and gracefully written.…Jordan succeeds in bringing Patton, Brad, and Ike to life once again.”—John C. McManus, author of The Dead and Those About to Die
“Roberts is a masterly storyteller." —Wall Street Journal on Napoleon: A Life
From "Britain's finest military historian" (The Economist
) comes a magisterial new history of World War II and the flawed axis strategy that led to their defeat.
The Second World War lasted for 2,174 days, cost $1.5 trillion, and claimed the lives of more than 50 million people. What were the factors that affected the war's outcome? Why did the Axis lose? And could they, with a different strategy, have won? Andrew Roberts's acclaimed new history has been hailed as the finest single-volume account of this epic con?ict. From the western front to North Africa, from the Baltic to the Far East, he tells the story of the war—the grand strategy and the individual experience, the cruelty and the heroism—as never before.
In researching this magnificently vivid history, Roberts walked many of the key battlefields and wartime sites in Russia, France, Italy, Germany, and the Far East, and drew on a number of never-before-published documents, such as a letter from Hitler's director of military operations explaining the reasoning behind the Führer's order to halt the Panzers outside Dunkirk—a delay that enabled British forces to evacuate. Roberts illuminates the principal actors on both sides and analyzes how they reached critical decisions. He also presents the tales of many little-known individuals whose experiences form a panoply of the extraordinary courage and self-sacrifice, as well as the terrible depravity and cruelty, of the Second World War.
Meticulously researched and masterfully written, The Storm of War gives a dramatic account of this momentous event and shows in remarkable detail why the war took the course it did.
"Roberts'spopulist approach makes for a rollicking good read and never comes at theexpense of accuracy. His mastery of the huge variety of subjects is trulyimpressive and his ability to marshal these subjects into a single compellingnarrative stunning." —The Daily Telegraph
Hailedby The Economist as “Britains finest military historian” forbestsellers such as Masters and Commanders and Waterloo, AndrewRoberts offers a magisterial new history of World War II and the Axis strategythat led the Germans and Japanese to their eventual defeat. Perfect for readershoping to gain new insight into WWIIs pivotal battles and campaigns, fromDunkirk to D-Day, The Storm of War is a powerful, penetrating, andcompulsively readable examination of the causes, currents, and consequences ofthe Second World War.
A closeup, in-the-room look at how FDR took masterful command and control of the Second World War, from wresting key decisions away from Churchill and his own generals, to launching the first successful trial landing in North Africa, and beginning to turn the tide away from the Axis.
Based on years of archival research and interviews with the last surviving aides and Roosevelt family members, Nigel Hamilton offers a definitive account of FDRand#8217;s masterfuland#8212;and underappreciatedand#8212;command of the Allied war effort.and#160;Hamilton takes readers inside FDRand#8217;s White House Oval Studyand#8212;his personal command centerand#8212;and into the meetings where he battled with Churchill about strategy and tactics and overrode the near mutinies of his own generals and secretary of war.and#160;
Time and again, FDR was proven right and his allies and generals were wrong.and#160;When the generals wanted to attack the Nazi-fortified coast of France, FDR knew the Allied forces werenand#8217;t ready.and#160;When Churchill insisted his Far East colonies were loyal and would resist the Japanese, Roosevelt knew it was a fantasy.and#160;As Hamiltonand#8217;s account reaches its climax with the Torch landings in North Africa in late 1942, the tide of war turns in the Alliesand#8217; favor and FDRand#8217;s genius for psychology and military affairs is clear.and#160;This intimate, sweeping look at a great president in historyand#8217;s greatest conflict is must reading.
The New York Times-bestselling author of Napeoleon: A Life and The Storm of War tells the shattering story of the blackest day in the history of British army: the first day of the Somme Offensive, July 1, 1916
On July 1, 1916, after a five-day bombardment, 11 British and five French divisions launched their long-awaited "Big Push" on German positions on high ground above the Rivers Ancre and Somme on the Western Front. Some ground was gained, but at a terrible cost. In killing-grounds whose names are indelibly imprinted on 20th-century memory, German machine-guns—manned by troops who had sat out the storm of shellfire in deep dugouts—inflicted terrible losses on the British infantry. The British Fourth Army lost 57,470 casualties, the French Sixth Army suffered 1,590 casualties, and the German 2nd Army 10,000. And this was but the prelude to 141 days of slaughter that would witness the deaths of between 750,000 and 1 million troops. Andrew Roberts evokes the pity and the horror of the blackest day in the history of the British army—a summer’s day turned hell on earth by modern military technology—in the words of casualties, survivors, and the bereaved.
About the Author
Andrew Roberts is the author of Masters and Commanders and A History of the English-Speaking Peoples Since 1900. His other books include Napoleon and Wellington, Eminent Churchillians, and Salisbury, which won the Wolfson History Prize. A Fellow of the Royal Society of Literature, he holds a PhD in history from Cambridge University and writes regularly for The Wall Street Journal and The Daily Beast. He lives in New York City.
Table of Contents
PART ONE: PLACENTIA BAY
Before the Stormand#8194;3
PART TWO: PEARL HARBOR
The U.S. Is Attacked!and#8194;43
PART THREE: CHURCHILL IN THE WHITE HOUSE
The Victory Planand#8194;99
The Presidentand#8217;s Map Roomand#8194;145
PART FOUR: TROUBLE WITH MACARTHUR
The Fighting Generaland#8194;157
PART FIVE: END OF AN EMPIRE
The Mockery of the Worldand#8194;207
The Battleground for Civilizationand#8194;214
PART SIX: INDIA
No Hand on the Wheeland#8194;223
Lessons from the Far Eastand#8194;228
Churchill Threatens to Resignand#8194;236
The Worst Case of Jittersand#8194;254
PART SEVEN: MIDWAY
The Battle of Midwayand#8194;274
PART EIGHT: TOBRUK
Churchilland#8217;s Second Comingand#8194;289
The Fall of Tobrukand#8194;303
No Second Dunquerqueand#8194;310
Avoiding Utter Catastropheand#8194;317
PART NINE: JAPAN FIRST
A Staggering Crisisand#8194;330
A Rough Dayand#8194;337
PART TEN: THE MUTINY
A Definite Decisionand#8194;359
A Failed Mutinyand#8194;363
PART ELEVEN: REACTION IN MOSCOW
PART TWELVE: AN INDUSTRIAL MIRACLE
A Trip Across Americaand#8194;381
The Presidentand#8217;s Loyal Lieutenantand#8194;390
PART THIRTEEN: THE TRAGEDY OF DIEPPE
A Canadian Bloodbathand#8194;395
PART FOURTEEN: THE TORCH IS LIT
Something in West Africaand#8194;401
The Greatest Sensationand#8194;423