Synopses & Reviews
Taking Sides Takes on a Wide Range of Issues
The 2006 Taking Sides Student Collection brings together the arguments of leading social and behavioral scientists, educators, and contemporary commentators, forming 18 to 20 debates, or issues, that present the pros and cons of current controversies in an area of study. The ideal collection for libraries serving undergraduate college students, this set features the following titles:
Taking Sides: African Issues, 2/E
Taking Sides: Abnormal Psychology, 4/E
Taking Sides: Crime and Criminology, 7/E
Taking Sides: Environmental Issues, 12/E
Taking Sides: Social Issues, 14/E
Taking Sides: Educational Psychology, 4/E
Taking Sides: Gender
Taking Sides: Latin American Issues
Taking Sides: Lifespan Development
Taking Sides: Mass Media and Society, 9/E
Taking Sides: Educational Issues
Taking Sides: World Politics, 12/E
Taking Sides: Social Psychology, 2/E
Taking Sides: World History VI, 3/E
Taking Sides: World History V2, 2/E
Index on CD-ROM
This Expanded Edition of TAKING SIDES: CLASHING VIEWS IN WORLD HISTORY, VOLUME 2 presents current controversial issues in a debate-style format designed to stimulate student interest and develop critical thinking skills. Each issue is thoughtfully framed with an issue summary, an issue introduction, and a postscript. An instructors manual with testing material is available for each volume. USING TAKING SIDES IN THE CLASSROOM is also an excellent instructor resource with practical suggestions on incorporating this effective approach in the classroom. Each TAKING SIDES reader features an annotated listing of selected World Wide Web sites and is supported by our student website, www.mhcls.com/online.
Table of Contents
UNIT 1 THE MODERN WORLD 40278
Issue 1. Did the Industrial Revolution Lead to a Sexual Revolution?
YES: 23249 Edward Shorter, from "Female Emancipation, Birth Control, and Fertility in European History," The American Historical Review (June 1973)
NO: 23250 Louise A. Tilley, Joan W. Scott, and Miriam Cohen, from "Womens Work and European Fertility Patterns," Journal of Interdisciplinary History (Winter 1976)
Historian Edward Shorter argues that employment opportunities outside the home that opened up with industrialization led to a rise in the illegitimacy rate, which he attributes to the sexual emancipation of unmarried, working-class women. Historians Louise A. Tilley, Joan W. Scott, and Miriam Cohen counter that unmarried women worked to meet an economic need, not to gain personal freedom, and they attribute the rise in illegitimacy rates to broken marriage promises and the absence of traditional support from family, community, and the church. 40281
Issue 2. Was the French Revolution Worth Its Human Costs?
YES: 23251 Peter Kropotkin, from "The Great French Revolution, 1789-1793," The Great French Revolution, 1789-1793 (1971)
NO: 40797 from "The French Revolution: Bliss was it in that Dawn?," The Economist (December 24, 1988)
Peter Kropotkin (1842-1921), a Russian prince, revolutionary, and anarchist, argues that the French Revolution eradicated both serfdom and absolutism and paved the way for Frances future democratic growth. An article in The Economist argues that the French Revolution "culminated in the guillotine and the substitution of the state for the sovereignty of the nation," leaving behind negative legacies to the modern world. 40282
Issue 3. Did British Policy Decisions Cause the Mass Emigration and Land Reforms That Followed the Irish Potato Famine?
YES: 24682 Christine Kinealy, from "This Great Calamity: The Irish Famine, 1845-1852," This Great Calamity: The Irish Famine, 1845-1852 (1995)
NO: 25474 Hasia R. Diner, from "Where They Come From," Erin's Daughters in America: Irish Immigrant Women in the Nineteenth Century (1983)
Christine Kinealy, fellow of the University of Liverpool, argues that the British governments response to the Irish potato famine was deliberately inadequate. The British governments "hidden agenda" of long-term economic, social, and agrarian reform was accelerated by the famine, and mass emigration was a consequence of these changes. Historian Hasia R. Diner documents large-scale emigration both before and after the Irish potato famine. Diner credits the Irish people with learning from their famine experiences that the reliance of the poor on the potato and the excessive subdivision of land within families were no longer in their own best interests. 40284
Issue 4. Did the Meiji Restoration Constitute a Revolution in Nineteenth-Century Japan?
YES: 40285 Andrew Gordon, from A Modern History of Japan: From Tokugawa Times to the Present (Oxford University Press, 2003)
NO: 29947 W.G. Beasley, from The Meiji Restoration (Stanford University Press, 1972)
Historian Andrew Gordon states that the Meiji Restoration created fundamental changes in Japanese society, thus meriting the term "revolution." Historian W.G. Beasley argues that when compared with other revolutions like the French and Russian, the Meiji Restoration did not constitute a revolution in the classical sense. 40283
Issue 5. Were Economic Factors Primarily Responsible for British Imperialism?
YES: 24684 Lance E. Davis and Robert A. Huttenback, from Mammon and the Pursuit of Empire: The Economics of British Imperialism (Cambridge University Press, 1988)
NO: 24685 John M. MacKenzie, from The Partition of Africa, 1880-1900 and European Imperialism in the Nineteenth Century (Methuen and Co., 1983)
Professor Lance E. Davis and Robert Huttenback state that, although statistics prove that British imperialism was not a profitable venture, it was supported by an economic elite that was able to promote and derive profits from it. Professor John M. MacKenzie argues that the motivation for British imperialism was multi casual and that most of the causes can be found in the general anxiety crisis permeating British society in the late nineteenth century. 40286
Issue 6. Was Chinas Boxer Rebellion Caused by Environmental Factors?
YES: 29948 Paul A. Cohen, from History in Three Keys: The Boxers as Event, Experience, and Myth (Columbia University Press, 1997)
NO: 29949 Henriette Harrison, from "Justice on Behalf of Heaven," History Today (September 2000)
Professor Paul A. Cohen contends that while anti-foreign and anti-Christian attitudes played a role in the start of the Boxer rebellion, a more immediate cause was a severe drought and its impact on Chinese society. Historian Henriette Harrison concedes that while the Boxers were motivated by more than a single factor, opposition to Christian missionary activity was at the core of their rebellion.
UNIT 2 THE EARLY TWENTIETH CENTURY 40287
Issue 7. Were German Militarism and Diplomacy Responsible for World War I?
YES: 24686 V. R. Berghahn, from Imperial Germany, 1871-1914: Economy, Society, Culture, and Politics (Berghahn Books, 1994)
NO: 24687 Samuel R. Williamson, from "The Origins of the War," The Oxford Illustrated History of the First World War (Oxford University, 1998)
History professor V.R. Berghahn states that, although all of Europes major powers played a part in the onset of World War I, recent evidence still indicates that Germanys role in the process was the main factor responsible for the conflict. History professor Samuel R. Williamson, Jr., argues that the factors and conditions that led to the First World War were a shared responsibility and that no one nation could be blamed for its genesis. 40288
Issue 8. Was the Treaty of Versailles Responsible for World War II?
YES: 40289 Derek Aldcroft, from "The Versailles Legacy," History Review (December 1997)
NO: 26542 Mark Mazower, from "Two Cheers for Versailles," History Today (July 1997)
Historian Derek Aldcroft states that a combination of the flaws present in the post-war Versailles Treaty and the resultant actions and inactions of European statesmen created a climate that paved the way to World War II. Historian Mark Mazower finds that while the Treaty of Versailles contained weaknesses, it failed due to a lack of enforcement of its principles by a generation of European leaders. 40290
Issue 9. Did the Bolshevik Revolution Improve the Lives of Soviet Women?
YES: 29950 Richard Stites, from "Women and the Revolutionary Process in Russia," Becoming Visible: Women in European History, 2nd ed. (Houghton Mifflin, 1987)
NO: 40291 Lesley A. Rimmel, from "The Baba and the Comrade: Gender and Politics in Revolutionary Russia," The Women's Review of Books (September 1998)
History professor Richard Stites argues that, in the early years of the Bolshevik Revolution, the Zhenotdel, or Womens Department, helped many working women take the first steps toward emancipation. Russian scholar Lesley A. Rimmel finds that the Russian Revolution remains unfinished for women, who were mobilized as producers and reproducers for a male political agenda. 40292
Issue 10. Was German "Eliminationist Anti-semitism" Responsible for the Holocaust?
YES: 23261 Daniel Jonah Goldhagen, from "The Paradigm Challenged," Tikkun (May/June 1998)
NO: 29951 Christopher R. Browning, from "Ordinary Germans or Ordinary Men? A Reply to the Critics," The Holocaust and History: The Known, The Unknown, The Disputed, and the Reexamined (Indiana University Press, 1998)
Political science professor Daniel Goldhagen states that due to the nature of German society in the twentieth centurywith its endemic, virulent anti-Semitismthousands of ordinary German citizens became willing participants in the implementation of Holocaust horrors. Holocaust historian Christopher R. Browning argues that Goldhagens thesis is too simplistic and that a multi casual approach must be used to determine why ordinary German citizens willingly participated in the Holocaust. 40293
Issue 11. Should Japanese Emperor Hirohito Have Been Held Responsible for Japan's World War II Actions?
YES: 40294 Herbert Bix, from "Emperor Hirohito's War," History Today (December 1999)
NO: 29953 Stephen S. Large, from Emperor Hirohito and Showa Japan: A Political Biography (Routledge, 1992)
Herbert P. Bix offers proof that Emperor Hirohito should be held responsible for Japans World War II actions. Historian Stephen S. Large argues that Emperor Hirohitos lack of real political power to affect change absolves him from any direct responsibility for World War II. 40296
Issue 12. Was Stalin Responsible for the Cold War?
YES: 23263 John Lewis Gaddis, from We Now Know: Rethinking Cold War History (Oxford University Press, Ltd., 1997)
NO: 23264 Martin J. Sherwin, from "The Atomic Bomb and the Origins of the Cold War," Routtledge (Routledge, 1994)
Historian John Lewis Gaddis states that after more than half a century of cold war scholarship, Joseph Stalin still deserves most of the responsibility for the onset of the cold war. Historian Martin J. Sherwin counters that the origins of the cold war can be found in the World War II diplomacy involving the use of the atomic bomb, and he places much of the blame for the cold war on the shoulders of Franklin D. Roosevelt, Harry S. Truman, and Winston Churchill.
UNIT 3 THE CONTEMPORARY WORLD 40297
Issue 13. Are Chinese Confucianism and Western Capitalism Compatible?
YES: 29954 A. T. Nuyen, from "Chinese Philosophy and Western Capitalism," Asian Philosophy (March 1999)
NO: 24414 Jack Scarborough, from "Comparing Chinese and Western Cultural Roots: Why "East Is East" and...," Business Horizons (November 1998)
Philosophy professor A.T. Nuyen maintains that the basic tenets of classical capitalism are perfectly compatible with the key elements of Chinese philosophy. Management professor Jack Scarborough contrasts the Western heritage of democracy, rationality, and individualism with Confucian values of harmony, filial loyalty, and legalism. Based on his comparison, Scarborough finds that Chinese Confucianism is incompatible with Western capitalism. 40298
Issue 14. Does Islamic Revivalism Challenge a Stable World Order?
YES: 23265 John L. Esposito, from The Islamic Threat: Myth or Reality? (Oxford University Press, 1995)
NO: 29955 Sharif Shuja, from "Islam and the West: From Discord to Understanding," Contemporary Review (May 2001)
Professor of Middle Eastern studies John L. Esposito sees the Iranian Revolution against Western-inspired modernization and Egypts "holy war" against Israel as examples of the Islamic quest for a more authentic society and culture, which challenges a stable world order. Professor of international relations Sharif Shuja identifies the rise of Islamic movements as resistance to Western domination rather than as a threat to the West as such and traces Western fears of a monolithic Islamic entity to the errors of an "Orientalist" mindset. 40299
Issue 15. Was Ethnic Hatred Responsible for the Rwandan Genocide of 1994?
YES: 40300 Alison Des Forges, from "The Ideology of Genocide," Issue: A Journal of Opinion (January 20, 1995)
NO: 40301 René Lemarchand, from "Rwanda: The Rationality of Genocide," Issue: A Journal of Opinion (December 1995)
Alison Des Forges states that ethnic hatred between Hutus and Tutsis in Rwanda was primarily responsible for the Rwandan genocide of 1994. René Lemarchand admits that ethnic rivalries played a role in the catastrophe, but the ability of the Hutus to engage in "planned annihilation" free of any local or international restraint was a more important factor. 40302
Issue 16. Were Ethnic Leaders Responsible for the Disintegration of Yugoslavia?
YES: 23269 Warren Zimmerman, from Origins of a Catastrophe (Times Books, 1996)
NO: 23270 Steven Majstrorovic, from "Ancient Hatreds or Elite Manipulation? Memory and Politics in the Former Yugoslavia," World Affairs (Spring 1997)
Career diplomat Warren Zimmerman, the United States last ambassador to Yugoslavia, argues that the republics ethnic leaders, especially Slobodan Milosevic, bear primary responsibility for the nations demise. Political science professor Steven Majstorovic contends that while manipulation by elite ethnic leaders played a role in the disintegration of Yugoslavia, the fragile ethnic divisions, formed by memory and myth, also played an important role in the countrys demise. 40303
Issue 17. Do the Roots of Modern Terrorism Lie in Political Powerlessness, Economic Hopelessness, and Social Alienation?
YES: 30674 Anatol Lieven, from "Strategy for Terror," Prospect Magazine (October 2001)
NO: 30790 Mark Juergensmeyer, from "Terror in the Name of God," Current History (November 2001)
World policy analyst Anatol Lieven states that dated United States cold war policies and despair-inducing political, economic, and social conditions have contributed to the rise of radical Islamists, some of whom were responsible for the September 11, 2001, attacks. International relations specialist Mark Juergensmeyer contends that the roots of the September 11, 2001, attacks lie in the radical views of the terrorists, especially the symbolism of cosmic war and the battle between good and evil. 40305
Issue 18. Have Afghan Women Been Liberated from Oppression?
YES: 40306 Sima Wali, from "Afghan Women: Recovering, Rebuilding," Carnegie Council on Ethics and International Affairs (October 2002)
NO: 33344 Noy Thrupkaew, from "What Do Afghan Women Want?," The American Prospect (August 26, 2002)
International Afghan advocate for refugee women Sima Wali documents the pivotal roles Afghan women have played in rebuilding their communities, praises their courage in denouncing warlords, and calls for their full participation in the newly formed constitutional government. Journalist Noy Thrupkaew argues that dissension among womens groups in Afghanistan and the high profile of the Western-backed Revolutionary Association of the Women of Afghanistan (RAWA) are hampering progress; a more unified and moderate approach is needed. 700173
Issue 19. Is the Influence of the European Union in World Affairs Increasing?
YES: 46792 Mitchell P. Smith, from "Soft Power Rising," World Literature Today (January-February 2006)
NO: 46793 Efstathios T. Fakiolas from "The European Union's Problem's of Cohesion," New Zealand International Review (March-April 2007)
Political science and international studies professor Mitchell P. Smith argues that the European Union excels in the use of soft power to achieve desired outcomes at minimal cost, by avoiding the use of military force and sharing the burden of enforcement with others. Efstathios T. Fakiolas, Strategy and Southeast European Affairs Analyst, contends that Europes failure to achieve European “Union-hood” seriously hampers its effectiveness in the global community. 700174
Issue 20. Should the United States Pursue a Policy of Liberal Imperialism in the Twenty-First Century?
YES: 46794 Max Boot, from "Liberal Imperialism," American Heritage (June/July 2002)
NO: 32954 Immanuel Wallerstein, from "The Eagle Has Crash Landed," Foreign Policy (July/August 2002)
Foreign policy author and commentator Max Boot argues that the United States should continue its policy of liberal imperialism in the twenty-first century because it represents the best alternative to insure permanent world peace. Author and professor Immanuel Wallerstein argues that U.S foreign policy has created major problems and that the United States should cease aggressive actions, preventing further damage at home and abroad.