THE CHEMISTRY OF CEMENT AND CONCRETE, Third Edition F.M LEA The advances in the chemistry and physics of cements led to the necessity for this third edition. Lea's book deals with the chemical and physical properties of cements and concretes and their relation to the practical problems that arise in their manufacture and use. It will be of great interest not only to the chemist involved in the science and technology of silicate materials but also to those using concrete in building and civil engineering construction. Attention is given to problems arising in the use of concrete, from the suitability of materials, to the conditions under which concrete may deteriorate and the precautionary or remedial measures that can be adopted. It is well illustrated with line drawings, tables and photographs. PARTIAL CONTENTS: History of calcareous cements; Classification of cements; Portland cements: Raw materials and manufacturing processes; Cement components and their phase relations; Cementing qualities of the cement compounds; Constitution, burning, proportioning, hydration and setting and hardening of Portland cement; Structure of cement compounds; Action of acid and sulphate waters of Portland Cement; Physical and mechanical properties of Portland Cement, Pozzolanas and Pozzolanic cements; Cements made from blast furnace slag; High Alumina cement, some special cements and cement properties; Concrete aggregates; Resistance of Concrete to various organic and inorganic agents; Examination of concrete failures.
1. THE HISTORY OF CALCAREOUS CEMENTS p. 1
2. CLASSIFICATION OF CEMENTS p. 11
3. PORTLAND CEMENTS: RAW MATERIALS AND MANUFACTURING PROCESSES p. 20
Composition of raw materials. Dry and wet processes. Combined
production of Portland cement and other products.
4 CEMENT COMPONENTS AND THEIR PHASE RELATIONS p. 28
Component oxides. Phase equilibrium relations. Compounds formed
in binary, ternary, quaternary and more complex systems. Minor
5. THE CEMENTING QUALITIES OF THE CEMENT p. 82
Strength of cement compounds. Cement zones in the systems
CaO-A12 O3-Si02, CaO-Fe2O3-Si02
6. THE CONSTITUTION OF PORTLAND CEMENT p. 91
Equilibrium or non-equilibrium products. Microscopic examination.
Portland cement minerals. X-ray examination. Electron microprobe
analysis. Free lime. Analysis of cements. Compound content.
7. THE BURNING OF PORTLAND CEMENT p. 118
Solid reactions. Thermochemistry of cement formation. Reactions in
rotary kilns. Clinker equilibrium during cooling. Factors influencing
the compound content. Estimation of compound content. Effect of
cooling on properties. Clinker structure and properties. Sulphur
compounds and alkalis in cement burning. Influence of phosphates
and fluxing agents.
8. THE PROPORTIONING OF PORTLAND CEMENT p. 158
Portland cement compositions. Proportioning formulae. Specification
requirements. Rapid-hardening, sulphate-resisting and low-heat
Portland cements. Properties and compound content.
9. THE HYDRATION OF PORTLAND CEMENT p. 177
Hydration of cement compounds. Hydrated compounds. Aqueous
phase equilibria. The complex aluminate and ferrite salts. Hydration
of Portland cement. Microstructure of set cement. Rate of hydration.
Estimation of calcium hydroxide in set cement.
10. THE SETTING AND HARDENING OF PORTLAND CEMENT p. 250
Mechanism of cementitious action. Setting and hardening process.
Morphology of set cement. Theory of the bonding action.
Cement aggregate bond. Volume change on setting.
Water in set cement. Specific surface of set cement.
Shrinkage and creep theory. Hydration and strength.
Heat evolution. Calcium sulphate retarders.
Aeration. Effects of salts on setting. Theory of action of retarders.
11. THE STRUCTURE OF CEMENT COMPOUNDS p. 311
Crystalline state. Diffraction of X-rays. Determination of structure.
Electron microscopy and diffraction. Other techniques giving
structural information. Structures of the anhydrous compounds.
Theories of hydration. Structures of the hydrated compounds.
12. ACTION OF ACID AND SULPHATE WATERS ON PORTLAND CEMENT p. 338
Pure waters. Carbon dioxide waters. Sulphate salts. Sea-water.
Sulphate-resisting cements. Steam curing and sulphate resistance.
Tests for sulphate resistance.
13. PHYSICAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF
PORTLAND CEMENT p. 360
Density. Setting time. Rheology of cement paste. Soundness.
Fineness. Surface area. Strength tests. Factors influencing strength.
Steam curing. Non-destructive test methods. Absorption. Permeability.
Shrinkage. Creep. Thermal expansion. Thermal conductivity.
Elasticity. Small-scale testing.
14. POZZOLANAS AND POZZOLANIC CEMENTS p. 414
Natural. Artificial. Use of pozzolanas. Lime-pozzolana reaction.
Combination with lime. Estimation of pozzolana content of cements.
Chemical evaluation. Lime-pozzolana mixes. Pozzolanic cements.
Chemical resistance. Testing of pozzolanas and pozzolanic cements.
15. CEMENTS MADE FROM BLASTFURNACE SLAG p. 454
Slag. Granulation. Constitution and properties. Structures of glasses.
Assessment of granulated slags. Lime-slag cements. Portland
blastfurnace cements. Hydration reaction. Supersulphated cement.
Utilisation of slag cements.
16. HIGH-ALUMINA CEMENT p. 490
History. Manufacture. Composition. Constitution. Hydration. Effect
of temperature. Combined water. Volume change in setting. Properties.
Fineness. Soundness. Setting time. Strength. Mixtures with
Portland cement. Heat evolution. Effect of temperature on strength.
Long age strength. Resistance to chemical attack. Refractory concrete.
17. SOME SPECIAL CEMENTS AND CEMENT PROPERTIES p. 528
White cements. Coloured cements. Waterproofed cements. Masonry
cements. Oil-well cements. Expanding and non-shrinking cements.
Hydrophobic cement. Inert additions. Cement-emulsion mixes.
Cement injection processes. Colloidal concrete. Gunite. Radiation
shields. Non-calcareous cements. Crazing of cements. Carbonation.
Soluble alkalis. Staining. Efflorescence. Painting on cement. Cement
paints. Corrosion of steel in concrete. Corrosion of non-ferrous metals
18. CONCRETE AGGREGATES p. 557
Dense aggregates. Sands, gravels, crushed rock. Air-cooled blastfurnace
slag. Crushed brick. Physical properties. Shrinkable aggregates.
Dolerites. Chemical properties. Alkali-aggregate reaction.
Alkali-carbonate reaction. Lightweight aggregates. Foamed slag.
Expanded clay and slate. Pulverised fuel ash. Vermiculite and perlite.
Clinker. Sawdust. No-fines concrete. Aerated concrete. Asbestos.
19. RESISTANCE OF CONCRETE TO NATURAL
DESTRUCTIVE AGENCIES p. 591
Concrete. Admixtures. Air-entrained concrete. Water-reducing and
set-retarding agents. Integral waterproofers. Accelerators and
retarders. Surface treatments. Resistance of concrete to frost. Frost
scaling of road surfaces. Freezing tests. Differential thermal expansion.
Durability of concrete. Sea-water. Sulphate soils and waters. Marsh
waters. Mountain waters. Concrete pipes. Fire. Electrolysis.
20. RESISTANCE OF CONCRETE TO VARIOUS ORGANIC
AND INORGANIC AGENTS p. 659
Mineral oils. Organic acids. Vegetable and animal oils. Silage.
Sugar. Sewage. Gases. Inorganic compounds. Miscellaneous Materials.
21. THE EXAMINATION OF CONCRETE FAILURES p. 677
Causes of failure. Petrographic examination of concrete. Analysis
of fresh concrete. Cement content of set concretes. Examination of
aggregate. Chemical examination of concrete.
Appendices p. 688
Name Index p. 699
Subject Index p. 711