Synopses & Reviews
In January 2014 Pope Francis called the Internet a "gift from God." Months later former Secretary of Defense, Leon Panetta, described cyber warfare as "the most serious threat in the 21st century," capable of destroying our entire infrastructure and crippling the nation. Already, cyber warfare has impacted countries around the world: Estonia in 20007, Georgia in 2008, and Iran in 2010; and, as with other methods of war, cyber technology has the ability to be used not only on military forces and facilities, but on civilian targets.Our computers have become spies and tools for terrorism, and a have allowed for a new, unchecked method of war.
And yet, cyber warfare is still in its infancy, with inumerable possibilities and contingencies for how such a war may play out in the coming decades. Cyber War Taboo?: The Evolution of Norms for Emerging-Technology Weapons, from Chemical Weapons to Cyber Warfare examines the international development of constraining norms for cyber warfare and and predicts how those norms will unfold in the future. Using case studies for other emerging-technology weapons—chemical and biological weapons, strategic bombing, and nuclear weapons--author Brian Mazanec expands previous definitions of norm evolution theory and offers recommendations for citizens and U.S. policymakers and as they grapple with the impending reality of cyber war.
andldquo;Will norms evolve for cyber warfare analogous to those . . . that have helped keep the world free from the use of nuclear weapons since 1945? This thoughtful and careful work parses this hugely important question with care and creativity. Bravo.andrdquo;andmdash;R. James Woolsey, former director of the Central Intelligence Agency and chairman of the Foundation for Defense of Democracies
andldquo;Dr. Mazanecandrsquo;s pioneering work on cyber norms fills a void in the nascent canon of cyber-conflict knowledge and sets a path forward for further research. Informative and instructive for todayandrsquo;s policymakers.andrdquo;andmdash;Bob Gourley, former chief technology officer of the Defense Intelligence Agency and the first director of intelligence at the Joint Task Force on Computer Network Defense
andldquo;The Evolution of Cyber Warand#160;is a significant contribution to the required canon for anyone interested in understanding this new prospective weapon of mass destruction.andrdquo;andmdash;Keith Payne, former deputy assistant secretary of defense for Forces Policy and current president of the National Institute for Public Policy
andldquo;Brian Mazanec has produced a stellar work by creating a set of norms and then applying them across different evolutions of weapons platforms.andrdquo;andmdash;Jeffrey Carr, CEO of cyber security firm Taia Global, Inc., and author of Inside Cyber Warfare: Mapping the Cyber Underworld
After the September 11 attacks, the 9/11 Commission argued that the United States needed a powerful leader, a spymaster, to forge the scattered intelligence bureaucracies into a singular enterprise to vanquish Americas new enemies—stateless international terrorists. In the midst of the 2004 presidential election, Congress and the president remade the post-World War II national security infrastructure in less than five months, creating the Office of the Director of National Intelligence (DNI) and a National Counterterrorism Center (NCTC). Blinking Red illuminates the complicated history of the bureaucratic efforts to reform Americas national security after the intelligence failures of 9/11 and Iraqs missing weapons of mass destruction, explaining how the NSC and Congress shaped the U.S. response to the 9/11 attacks. Michael Allen asserts that the process of creating the DNI position and the NCTC is a case study in power politics and institutional reform. By bringing to light the legislative transactions and political wrangling during the reform of the intelligence community, Allen helps us understand why the effectiveness of these institutional changes is still in question.
Former secretary of defense Leon Panetta once described cyber warfare as andldquo;the most serious threat in the twenty-first century,andrdquo; capable of destroying our entire infrastructure and crippling the nation.
Already, major cyber attacks have affected countries around the world: Estonia in 2007, Georgia in 2008, Iran in 2010, and most recently the United States. As with other methods of war, cyber technology can be used not only against military forces and facilities but also against civilian targets. Information technology has enabled a new method of warfare that is proving extremely difficult to combat, let alone defeat.
And yet cyber warfare is still in its infancy, with innumerable possibilities and contingencies for how such conflicts may play out in the coming decades. Brian M. Mazanec examines the worldwide development of constraining norms for cyber war and predicts how those norms will unfold in the future. Employing case studies of other emerging-technology weaponsandmdash;chemical and biological, strategic bombing, and nuclear weaponryandmdash;Mazanec expands previous understandings of norm-evolution theory, offering recommendations for U.S. policymakers and citizens alike as they grapple with the reality of cyber terrorism in our own backyard.
About the Author
Brian M. Mazanec is an assistant director for defense capabilities and management with the U.S. government and an adjunct professor in the School of Policy, Government, and International Affairs at George Mason University. He is the coauthor of Deterring Cyber Warfare: Bolstering Strategic Stability in Cyberspace, and his work has appeared in Strategic Studies Quarterly, the National Cybersecurity Institute Journal, Comparative Strategy, Politics and the Life Sciences, and the Journal of International Security Affairs.