Synopses & Reviews
Roaming the countryside in caravans, earning their living as musicians, peddlers, and fortune-tellers, the Gypsies and their elusive way of life represented an affront to Nazi ideas of social order, hard work, and racial purity. They were branded as "asocials," harassed, and eventually herded into concentration camps where many thousands were killed. But until now the story of their persecution has either been overlooked or distorted.
In The Nazi Persecution of the Gypsies, Guenter Lewy draws upon thousands of documents--many never before used--from German and Austrian archives to provide the most comprehensive and accurate study available of the fate of the Gypsies under the Nazi regime. Lewy traces the escalating vilification of the Gypsies as the Nazis instigated a widespread crackdown on the "work-shy" and "itinerants." But he shows that Nazi policy towards Gypsies was confused and changeable. At first, local officials persecuted gypsies, and those who behaved in gypsy-like fashion, for allegedly anti-social tendencies. Later, with the rise of race obsession, Gypsies were seen as a threat to German racial purity, though Himmler himself wavered, trying to save those he considered "pure Gypsies" descended from Aryan roots in India. Indeed, Lewy contradicts much existing scholarship in showing that, however much the Gypsies were persecuted, there was no general program of extermination analogous to the "final solution" for the Jews.
Exploring in heart-rending detail the fates of individual Gypsies and their families, The Nazi Persecution of the Gypsies makes an important addition to our understanding both of the history of this mysterious people and of all facets of the Nazi terror.
Thousands of documents from German and Austrian archives provide a horrifying picture of how Europe's nomadic Gypsies were ostracized, abused, and branded by the Nazis in the quest for racial purity. 20 halftones.
Includes bibliographical references (p. -296) and index.
About the Author
is Professor Emeritus of Political Science at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst. He is the author of many books, including The Catholic Church and Nazi Germany
and Religion and Revolution (OUP). He lives in Washington, D.C.
Table of Contents
The prewar years: a three-track policy. Track 1: harassment stepped up ; Track 2: crime prevention ; Track 3: confronting an "alien race" ; The special case of the Austrian gypsies -- A tightened net (1939-1942). "Security measures" and expulsions ; Creating social outcasts ; Detention and deportation from the Ostmark (Austria) ; The killing of "spies" and hostages in German-occupied Europe -- A community destroyed (1943-1945). Deportation to Auschwitz ; Life and death in the gypsy family camp of Auschwitz ; Gypsies in other concentration camps ; Gypsies exempted from deportation -- After the disaster. Victims and perpetrators ; Conclusion: the course of persecution assessed.