Synopses & Reviews
The police composite sketch, one of the most crucial investigative tools in law enforcement, is developed during a composite session--an intense display of communication and art in which the words of a witness are transformed into the features of a suspect. Despite the incredible technological leaps made in investigative work, the forensic science of composite sketching still relies on the basic elements of drawing skill, interpretive ability and the spoken word. The Police Composite Sketch is a comprehensive manual on how to conduct a complete composite session. Through an array of case studies, it details several disciplines that comprise this specialized forensic art, including composite sketching, image modification, age progression, facial comparison analysis, demonstrative evidence and postmortem/skull reconstruction. It also explores how to intuit insights that are often inadvertently revealed by witnesses, victims and perpetrators during the composite session. In addition, this book discusses other relevant topics, such as the three-stage drawing technique, witness and victim types, descriptive terminologies, managing composite sessions. Complete with numerous illustrations and drawing tips, this seminal work offers a general composite session philosophy and specific session strategies to both experienced and aspiring forensic artists as well as any lay reader intrigued by this fascinating skill.
Complete with illustrations and drawing tips, this seminal work offers a general composite session philosophy and specific session strategies to both experienced and aspiring forensic artists as well as any lay reader intrigued by this fascinating skill.
Table of Contents
AcknowledgementsIntroductionI. FORENSIC ART and COMPOSITE ARTForensic ArtAre court room artist forensic artist?Definitions of forensic art disciplinesBecoming a Forensic ArtistHow do I begin to be a forensic artist?Story1: 'Mob Hit'Composite ArtBasic Composite Case Study: 'A Serial Rapist'Art MaterialsWhat kinds of art materials are used?Story2: 'Equipment'II. THE COMPOSITE SESSIONBasic ConceptsStory 3: 'First Sketch'The Beginning of the Composite Session Working Case Study: 'The Psycho Straphanger'The InterviewDoes the artist need to get a detective"s experience interrogating suspects and will this help the artist conduct a composite session?MemoryCase Study 1: 'Impaired Victim'The Composite Session ContinuesSession dynamicsCase Study 2: 'Racial Sensibilities'Is there any written record of what a witness or victim says or describes? Concepts before Starting to DrawHow long does a composite session last?When the artist is drawing, where should the victim or witness sit?III. DRAWING THE COMPOSITE SKETCHProportional Stage of the SketchAverage and Normal RuleRealm of PossibilityCharacteristic Stage of the SketchRendering Stage of the SketchFeature value distinctionThe Composite Session EndsWhen assessing the success of a completed composite sketch, should a numerical scale be used such as requesting the victim to rate a sketch from 1 to 10?IV. WITNESSES and VICTIMSWitness and Victim TypesMales and FemalesCase Study3: 'Dual Victim Rape' AgeWhat is the youngest age a victim or witness can participate in a composite session?Case Study 4: 'Elderly Victim'Case Study 5: 'Con Game'RaceCase Study 6:CrimesProfessionsIntelligenceDoes the intelligence of a victim or witness play a significant role during a composite session?Police Department Supporters and Skeptics Unusual Case 1: 'Unique Victims'V. DESCRIPTIVE TERMINOLOGIES, RESPONSES and SOLUTIONSDescriptive TerminologiesAverage, Basic and Shape WordsCase Study 7: 'Silver Gun Bandit'Age IndicationsDemeanor, Character and Build WordsFacial Feature TerminologiesHead and Face WordsEye WordsNose WordsMouth, Lips and Teeth WordsHair WordsFacial Hair and Eyebrow WordsEar WordsForehead WordsCheeks and Cheekbone WordsChin and Jaw WordsNeck WordsWhy the artist wouldn"t always include the neck?Special Facial Feature WordsRace TerminologyAfrican Americans TermsIs it necessary to render an African American suspect very dark in value if described as such?Hispanic TermsCaucasian TermsAsian TermsAmerican Indian TermsMixed and Unknown RacesColor IndicatorsImaginative PhrasesAccessory TerminologyHatsJewelryEyeglassesDisguisesCase Study 8: 'Disguise'Responses of Uncertainty, Positives and/or Negatives Uncertainty ResponsesPositive ResponsesNegative ResponsesResponses of CriticismBody LanguageUnusual Case 2: 'Body Gestures'Miscellaneous ResponsesPractical Study: Jack the RipperTerminology ConclusionVI. MANAGING DIFFICULT COMPOSITE SESSIONSDifficult Composite SessionsFive Artist AttributesShould the artist concentrate on making the victim laugh to achieve success?Field SketchesCase Study 9: 'Hospitalized Victim'Case Study 10: 'Pet Store'Unidentified Dead on Arrival (D.O.A. Sketches)Unusual Case 3:Case Study 11:Difficult Witnesses and VictimsUnintentional Difficult BehaviorsCase Study 12: 'Dentist Shooting'Intentional Difficult BehaviorsHow does the artist identify deception?Case Study 13: 'Baby Abduction'ChildrenThe PressCase Study 14: 'Central Park Assault'Multiple WitnessesEnhancing a completed sketch Miscellaneous DifficultiesVII. GENERAL DRAWING TIPSComposite Sketching TipsDrawing Skill TipsProportion Drawing TipsCharacteristic Drawing TipsWhen is the characteristic stage completed?Rendering TipsTexture TipsVIII. COMPOSITE SESSION TIPSAdditional Session TipsPhotograph ReferencesTransitioning Between Sketching StagesSession TerminationsEnding a Composite Session How does the artist start a composite sketch?How does the artist know when a session is completed?When is the sketch done?Gauging Successful Sessions and SketchesWhat constitutes a composite sketch hit?Case Study 15: '9-11'Case Study 16: 'Home Invasion'Case Solved