Synopses & Reviews
Totalitarianism offers a penetrating chronicle of the central concept of our era--an era shaped by our conflict first with fascism and then with communism. Interweaving the story of intellectual debates with the international history of the twentieth century, Gleason traces the birth of the term to Italy in the first years of Mussolini's rule. Created by Mussolini's enemies, the word was appropriated by the Fascists themselves to describe their program in what turned out to be one of the less totalitarian of the European dictatorships. He follows the growth and expansion of the concept as it was picked up in the West and applied to Hitler's Germany and the Soviet Union. Gleason's account takes us through the debates of the early postwar years, as academics in turn adopted the term--most notably Hannah Arendt. The idea of totalitarianism came to possess novelists such as Arthur Koestler (Darkness at Noon) and George Orwell (whose Nineteen Eighty-Four was interpreted by conservatives as an attack on socialism in general, and subsequently suffered criticism from left-leaning critics). The concept entered the public consciousness still more fully with the opening of the Cold War, as Truman used the rhetoric of totalitarianism to sell the Truman Doctrine to Congress. Gleason takes a fascinating look at the notorious brainwashing episodes of the Korean War, which convinced Americans that Communist China too was a totalitarian state. As he takes his account through to the 1990s, he offers an inner history of the Cold War, revealing the political charge the term carried for writers on both the left and right. He also explores the intellectual struggles that swirled around the idea in France, Germany, Italy, Czechoslovakia, and Poland. When the Cold War drew to a close in the late 1980s, Gleason writes, the concept lost much of its importance in the West even as it flourished in Russia, where writers began to describe their own collapsing state as totalitarian--though left-wing Western thinkers continued to resist doing so. Ideal for courses in politics and modern history, Totalitarianism provides a fascinating account of one of the most enigmatic yet compelling ideas of our time.
"A full survey of the shifts in meaning the word 'totalitarianism' has undergone--from its invention in Fascist Italy in the 1920s to its recent adoption by Russian intellectuals to describe the Communism under which they lived before 1991."--The New York Times Book Review
"Gleason has given us the contemporary equivalent of Hannah Arendt's The Origins of Totalitarianism....An essential, fascinating, and thought-provoking work of intellectual history."--Kirkus Reviews
Includes bibliographical references (p. 217-295) and index.
About the Author
About the Author -
Abbott Gleason is Barnaby Conrad and Mary Critchfield Professor of History at Brown University. His books include Young Russia: The Genesis of Russian Radicalism in the 1860s, European and Muscovite: Ivan Kireevsky and the Origins of Slavophilism, Shared Destiny: Fifty Years of Soviet American Relations (co-edited with Mark Garrison), and Bolshevik Culture: Experiment and Order in the Russian Revolution (co-edited wiht Peter Kenez and Richard Stites).
Table of Contents
One. Fascist Origins
Two. A New Kind of State: Italy, Germany, and the Soviet Union in the 1930s
Three. Wartime in the English-Speaking World
Four. The Cold War
Five. Brainwashing: Communist China as a Totalitarian State
Six. Searching for the Origins of Totalitarianism
Seven. "Totalitarianism" Among the Sovietologists
Eight. The Cold War in Postwar Europe: France, Italy, and Germany
Nine. The Cold War in Eastern Europe
Ten. The "Evil Empire"
Epilogue. The Russians Call Themselves Totalitarian