Synopses & Reviews
Ways of the World offers a genuine alternative for world history survey courses. Designed from the beginning as a brief text, Ways of the World focuses on the "big picture" of significant historical developments and is thoroughly global in its thematic and comparative approach. The accessible voice of a single author, with long experience in the classroom and in the world history movement, delivers to students an insightful new synthesis, thought provoking questions, and chapter ending sections that invite reflection on the meaning of world history. Available in full color and in combined and split volumes, Ways of the World just might be the book youve been waiting for.
About the Author
ROBERT W. STRAYER
comes to the writing of this text with wide experience in the world history enterprise. With a Ph.D. in European and African history from the University of Wisconsin, he has taught world history at many levels, beginning with a two-year stint in high school history instruction in Ethiopia with the Peace Corps. Most of his academic career was spent at SUNY College at Brockport, where he taught world history as well as African and Soviet history for three decades and received both the Chancellors Award for Excellence in Teaching and a similar award for Excellence in Scholarship. In 1998, he was a visiting professor of world history at the University of Canterbury in Christchurch, New Zealand. Since moving to California in 2002, he has taught world history at the University of California, Santa Cruz; California State University, Monterey Bay; and Cabrillo College. World history has been the primary intellectual focus of his career, during which he has served as a teacher, scholar, textbook author, consultant, and member of the Executive Committee of the World History Association.
Among his publications are works in African history, including Kenya: Focus on Nationalism (1975) and The Making of Mission Communities in East Africa (1978). More recently, he developed a specialty in Soviet history and wrote Why Did the Soviet Union Collapse? (1998) and The Communist Experiment (2007), comparing the experience of the Soviet Union with that of China. He was the senior author of an earlier world history textbook, The Making of the Modern World (1988; 1995), and has co-edited McGraw-Hills Explorations in World History series. He has also published in a number of specialized journals, such as the Journal of World History.
Table of Contents
VOLUME 2: From 1500 PrefacePrologue: Considering World History
Why World History? Comparison, Connection, and Change: The Three Cs of World History
Chapter 13 The Worlds of the Fifteenth Century Snapshot: Around the World in the Fifteenth Century The Shapes of Human Communities Paleolithic Persistence Agricultural Village Societies Herding Peoples Civilizations of the Fifteenth Century: Comparing China and Europe Ming Dynasty China European Comparisons: State-Building and Cultural Renewal European Comparisons: Maritime Voyaging Snapshot: Key Moments in European Oceanic Voyaging Civilizations of the Fifteenth Century: The Islamic World In the Islamic Heartland: The Ottoman and Safavid Empires On the Frontiers of Islam: The Songhay and Mughal Empires Civilizations of the Fifteenth Century: The "Americas" The Aztec Empire The Inca Empire Webs of Connection A Preview of Coming Attractions: Looking Ahead to the Modern Era, 1500-2000 Snapshot: World Population Growth, 1000-2000 Reflections: What If? Chance and Contingency in World History Second Thoughts What's the Significance? Big Picture Questions Next Steps: For Further Study PART FOUR: THE EARLY MODERN WORLD, 1450-1750 The Big Picture: Debating the Character of an Era An Early Modern Era? A Late Agrarian Era? Landmarks of the Early Modern Era, 1450-1750
Chapter 14 Empires and Encounters, 1450-1750 European Empires in the Americas The European Advantage The Great Dying The Columbian Exchange Comparing Colonial Societies in the Americas In the Lands of the Aztecs and Incas Colonies of Sugar Snapshot: Comparing Colonial Societies in Latin America Settler Colonies in North America Steppe Lands and Siberia: The Making of a Russian Empire Experiencing the Russian Empire Russians and Empire Snapshot: Demographics of the Russian Empire Asian Empires Making China an Empire Muslims and Hindus in the Mughal Empire Muslims, Christians, and the Ottoman Empire Reflections: Countering Eurocentrism…or Reflecting It? Second Thoughts What's the Significance? Big Picture Questions Next Steps: For Further Study
Chapter 15 Global Commerce, 1450-1750 Europeans and Asian Commerce A Portuguese Empire of Commerce Snapshot: Key Moments in the European Encounter with Asia Spain and the Philippines The East India Companies Asian Commerce Silver and Global Commerce The "World Hunt": Fur in Global Commerce Commerce in People: The Atlantic Slave Trade The Slave Trade in Context The Slave Trade in Practice Snapshot: The Slave Trade in Numbers Comparing Consequences: The Impact of the Slave Trade in Africa Reflections: Economic Globalization — Then and Now Second Thoughts What's the Significance? Big Picture Questions Next Steps: For Further Study
Chapter 16 Religion and Science, 1450-1750 The Globalization of Christianity Western Christendom Fragmented: The Protestant Reformation Snapshot: Catholic/Protestant Differences in the Sixteenth Century Christianity Outward Bound Conversion and Adaptation in Spanish America An Asian Comparison: China and the Jesuits Persistence and Change in Afro-Asian Cultural Traditions Expansion and Renewal in the Islamic World China: New Directions in an Old Tradition India: Bridging the Hindu/Muslim Divide A New Way of Thinking: The Birth of Modern Science The Question of Origins: Why Europe? Science as Cultural Revolution Snapshot: Major Thinkers and Achievements of the Scientific Revolution Science and Enlightenment Looking Ahead: Science in the Nineteenth Century European Science Beyond the West Reflections: Cultural Borrowing and Its Hazards Second Thoughts What's the Significance? Big Picture Questions Next Steps: For further Study PART FIVE: THE EUROPEAN MOMENT IN WORLD HISTORY, 1750-1914 The Big Picture: European Centrality and the Problem of Eurocentrism Euro-centric Geography and History Countering Eurocentrism Landmarks of the European Moment in World History, 1750-1914
Chapter 17 Atlantic Revolutions and Their Echoes, 1775-1914 Comparing Atlantic Revolutions Snapshot: Key Moments in the History of Atlantic Revolutions The North American Revolution, 1775-1787 The French Revolution, 1789-1815 The Haitian Revolution, 1791-1804 Spanish American Revolutions, 1810-1826 Echoes of Revolution The Abolition of Slavery Nations and Nationalism Snapshot: Key Moments in the Growth of Nationalism Feminist Beginnings Reflections: Revolutions Pro and Con Second Thoughts What's the Significance? Big Picture Questions Next Steps: For further Study
Chapter 18 Revolutions of Industrialization, 1750-1914 Explaining the Industrial Revolution Why Europe? Why Britain? The First Industrial Society Snapshot: Measuring the Industrial Revolution The British Aristocracy The Middle Classes The Laboring Classes Social Protest Among the Laboring Classes Variations on a Theme: Comparing the United States and Russia The United States: Industrialization without Socialism Russia: Industrialization and Revolution The Industrial Revolution and Latin American in the Nineteenth Century Snapshot: The Industrial Revolution and the Global Divide After Independence in Latin America Facing the World Economy Becoming Like Europe? Reflections: History and Horse-races Second Thoughts What's the Significance? Big Picture Questions Next Steps: For further Study
Chapter 19 Internal Troubles, External Threats: China, The Ottoman Empire, and Japan, 1800-1914 The External Challenge: European Industry and Empire New Motives, New Means New Perceptions of the "Other" Reversal of Fortunes: Chinas Century of Crisis The Crisis Within Western Pressures Snapshot: Chinese/British Trade at Canton, 1835-1836 The Failure of Conservative Modernization The Ottoman Empire and the West in the Nineteenth Century "The Sick Man of Europe" Reform Identity Outcomes: Comparing China and the Ottoman Empire The Japanese Difference: The Rise of a New East Asian Power The Tokugawa Background American Intrusion and the Meiji Restoration Modernization Japanese Style Snapshot: Tracking the Rise of Japan in the Nineteenth Century Japan and the World Reflections: Success and Failure in History Second Thoughts What's the Significance? Big Picture Questions Next Steps: For further Study
Chapter 20 Colonial Encounters, 1750-1914 A Second Wave of European Conquests Under European Rule Cooperation and Rebellion Colonial Empires with a Difference Ways of Working: Comparing Colonial Economies Economies of Coercion: Forced Labor and the Power of the State Economies of Cash-Crop Agriculture: The Pull of the Market Economies of Wage Labor: Working for Europeans Women and the Colonial Economy: An African Case Study Assessing Colonial Development Snapshot: Long Distance Migration in an Age of Empire, 1846-1940 Believing and Belonging: Cultural Change in the Colonial Era Education Religion "Race" and "Tribe" Reflections: Who Makes History? Second Thoughts What's the Significance? Big Picture Questions Next Steps: For further Study PART SIX: THE MOST RECENT CENTURY, 1914-2007 The Big Picture: The Twentieth Century: A New Period in World History? Old and New in the Twentieth Century Three Regions — One World Landmarks of the Most Recent Century, 1914-2007
Chapter 21 The Collapse and Recovery of Europe, 1914-1970s The First World War: European Civilization in Crisis, 1914-1918 An Accident Waiting to Happen Legacies of the "Great War" Capitalism Unraveling: The Great Depression Snapshot: Comparing the Impact of the Depression Democracy Denied: Comparing Italy, Germany, and Japan The Fascist Alternative in Europe Hitler and the Nazis Japanese Authoritarianism A Second World War The Road to War in Asia The Road to War in Europe Snapshot: Key Moments in the History of World War II World War II: The Outcomes of Global Conflict The Recovery of Europe Reflections: War and Remembrance: Learning from History Second Thoughts What's the Significance? Big Picture Questions Next Steps: For further Study
Chapter 22 The Rise and Fall of World Communism, 1917-Present Global Communism Comparing Revolutions as a Path to Communism Russia: Revolution in a Single Year China: A Prolonged Revolutionary Struggle Building Socialism in Two Countries Communist Feminism Socialism in the Countryside Communism and Industrial Development Snapshot: China Under Mao, 1949-1976 The Search for Enemies East Versus West: A Global Divide and a Cold War Military Conflict and the Cold War Nuclear Stand-Off and Third World Rivalry The United States: Superpower of the West, 1945-1975 The Communist World, 1950s-1970s Comparing Paths to the End of Communism China: Abandoning Communism and Maintaining the Party The Soviet Union: The Collapse of Communism and Country Reflections: To Judge or Not to Judge: The Ambiguous Legacy of Communism Second Thoughts What's the Significance? Big Picture Questions Next Steps: For further Study
Chapter 23 Independence and Development in the Global South, 1914-Present Toward Freedom: Struggles for Independence The End of Empire in World History Explaining African and Asian Independence Comparing Freedom Struggles The Case of India: Ending British Rule The Case of South Africa: Ending Apartheid Snapshot: Key Moments in South African History Experiments with Freedom Experiments in Political Order: Comparing African Nations and India Experiments in Economic Development: Changing Priorities, Varying Outcomes Snapshot: Economic Development in the Global South by the Early 21st Century Experiments with Culture: The Role of Islam in Turkey and Iran Reflections: History in the Middle of the Stream Second Thoughts What's the Significance? Big Picture Questions Next Steps: For further Study
Chapter 24 Accelerating Global Interaction Since 1945 Global Interaction and the Transformation of the World Economy Re-Globalization Snapshot: Indicators of "Re-Globalization" Disparities and Resistance Globalization and an American Empire The Globalization of Liberation: Comparing Feminist Movements Feminism in the West Feminism in the Global South International Feminism Religion and Global Modernity Fundamentalism on a Global Scale Creating Islamic Societies: Resistance and Renewal in the World of Islam Religious Alternatives to Fundamentalism The Worlds Environment and the Globalization of Environmentalism The Global Environment Transformed Snapshot: World Population Growth 1950-2005 Green and Global Final Reflections: Pondering the Uses of History Second Thoughts What's the Significance? Big Picture Questions Next Steps: For further Study Notes Index