Synopses & Reviews
Chapter OneHinduismSome four, thousand years ago pastoral nomads whose ancestors had sprung from the soil of northeastern Europe entered the Indus Valley of ancient India. They called themselves Aryans, or Noble Ones, and the religion they brought, with them comprised the first evolutionary layer of Hinduism. The ritual centerpiece of Aryan religion was afire sacrifice, a burnt offering to the gods, performed by priests specially trained to chant sacred hymns. The hymns themselves were known as Vedas or "sacred knowledge." The Vedas are the scriptural bedrock of the Hindu tradition.
The aim of the Vedic fire sacrifice, indeed of Aryan religion. in general, was to ensure well-being and prosperity in this life. The early Vedas, the focus of the first section, contain little evidence of sustained thought about human destiny beyond this, life. The doctrines most of us associate with Hinduism-the cycle of reincarnations driven by karma and the liberation from this bondage by means ofyogic discipline-were to be reflected 'only a thousand years later in the most recent layers of Vedic literature, called the Upanishads. Selections from the Upanishads comprise the second section of this chapter. The third section focuses on the scripture called the Bhagavad Gita and has its own introduction.THE EARLY VEDAS1. He, O Men, Is IndraOf the four collections of Vedas, theft- Veda is the most important and foundational. The most popular god of the Rig-Veda is the expansive and dynamic Indra. He is said to have surpassed the other gods in power as soon as he was born (v. I), and he is credited both with having created the world by slaying a cosmic serpent and thus releasing the lifegiving,monsoon-bringing maters (v. 3); . and with helping the Aryans overcome the non Aryan populations they encountered.
The chief wise god who who as soon as born
surpassed the gods in power;
Before whose vehemence the two worlds trembled by reason
of the greatness of his valor: he, O men, is Indra.
Who made firm the quaking earth who set at rest the agitated mountains;
Who measures out the air more widely, who supported heaven: he; O men, is Indra.
Who having slain the serpent released the seven streams . . .
Who has made subject the Dasa colour the non-Aryan population and has made it disappear . . .
The terrible one of whom they ask "where is he," of whom they also say "he is not";
He diminishes the possessions of the foe like the stakes of gamblers. Believe in him: he, O men; is Indra . . .
Even Heaven and Earth bow down before him; before his vehemence even the mountains are afraid.
Who is known as the Soma-drinker, l 'holding the bolt in his . . . hand: he, 0 men, is Indra.2. O Agni, Dispeller of the NightBecause of his role in the all-important fire sacrifice, Agni, the god of fire, is perhaps second only to Indra in popularity, with over one thousand hymns dedicated to him in the Vedas. Here is a brief selection from a few.
a. From Rig-Veda I
Invoker, greatest bestower of wealth . . .
To thee, dispeller of the night; O Agni, day by day with prayer,
Bringing thee reverence, we come;
Ruler of sacrifices, guard of Law eternal Rta , radiant one,
Increasing in thine own abode.
Be to us easy of approach, even as a father to his son:
Agni, be with us forour weal.
b. From Rig-Veda' II
Thou, Agni, shining in, thy glory through the days, art
brought to life from out the waters, from the stone;
From out the forest trees and herbs that grow on ground, thou,
sovereign lord of men, art generated pure.
By thee, O Agni, all the immortal guileless gods eat with thy
mouth the oblation that. is offered them.
By thee do mortal men give sweetness to their drink.
Pure art thou born, the embryo of the plants of earth.
c. From Rig-Veda VII
will he not give us of his wealth?
Bright, purifier, meet for praise,
Immortal with refulgent glow,
Agni drives Rakshasas demons away.
A world Bible for our time from Buddhist, Hindu, Confucian, Taoist, Jewish, Christian, Islamic, and primal religion sources!
In this perfect companion to Huston Smith's bestselling The World's Wisdom, Philip Novak distills the most powerful and elegant expressions of the wisdom of humankind. Authentic, poetic translations of key texts are coupled with insightful introductions and "grace notes."
Novak has created a world Bible for our time from Buddhist, Hindu, Confucian, Taoist, Jewish, Christian, Islamic and primal religion sources. The most powerful and elegant expressions of the religious spirit are coupled with authentic, poetic translations, insightful introductions, and "grace notes" that show how each tradition is best expressed as it is lived out.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
About the Author
Philip Novak is the Santo Distinguished Professor of Philosophy and Religion at Dominican University in San Rafael, California, where he has taught for over twenty years, and the author of The World's Wisdom, a widely used anthology of the sacred texts of the world's religions and the companion reader to Huston Smith's The World's Religions.