This is a handbook on the mathematical relations for data analysis, modeling, and computer simulation customized to the particulate materials fields: powder metallurgy, ceramics, cemented carbides, refractory metals, and hard materials. It provides readers with the relevant mathematical relations needed to model behavior, generate computer simulations, analyze experiment data, and quantify physical and chemical phenomena commonly found in particulate materials processing.
PARTIAL TABLE OF CONTENTSForeword.
About the Authors.
A
Abnormal Grain Growth.
Abrasive Wear???See Friction and Wear Testing.
Acceleration of Free-settling Particles.
Activated Sintering, Early-stage Shrinkage.
Activation Energy???See Arrhenius Relation.
Adsorption???See BET Specific Surface Area.
Agglomerate Strength.
Agglomeration Force.
Agglomeration of Nanoscale Particles???See Nanoparticle Agglomeration.
Andreasen Size Distribution.
B
Ball Milling???See Jar Milling.
Bearing Strength.
Bell Curve???See Gaussian Distribution.
Bending-beam Viscosity.
Bending Test.
BET Equivalent Spherical-particle Diameter.
BET Specific Surface Area.
Bimodal Powder Packing.
Bimodal Powder Sintering.
Binder Burnout???See Polymer Pyrolysis.
C
Cantilever-beam Test???See Bending-beam Viscosity.
Capillarity.
Capillarity-induced Sintering???See Surface Curvature-Driven Mass Flow in Sintering.
Capillary Pressure during Liquid-phase Sintering???See Mean Capillary Pressure.
Capillary Rise???See Washburn Equation.
Capillary Stress???See Laplace Equation.
Case Carburization.
Casson Model.
Cemented-carbide Hardness.
Centrifugal Atomization Droplet Size.
D
Darcy???s Law.
Debinding???See Polymer Pyrolysis, Solvent Debinding Time, Thermal Debinding Time, Vacuum Thermal Debinding Time, and Wicking.
Debinding Master Curve???See Master Decomposition Curve.
Debinding Temperature.
Debinding Time???See Solvent Debinding Time, Thermal Debinding Time, Vacuum Thermal Debinding Time, and Wicking.
Debinding by Solvent Immersion???See Solvent Debinding Time.
Debinding Weight Loss.
Delubrication???See Polymer Pyrolysis.
Densification.
Densification in Liquid-phase Sintering???See Dissolution-induced Densification.
E
Effective Pressure.
Ejection Stress???See Maximum Ejection Stress.
Elastic Behavior???See Hooke???s Law.
Elastic deformation Neck-size Ratio.
Elastic-modulus Variation with Density.
Elastic-property Variation with Porosity.
Electrical-conductivity Variation with Porosity.
Electromigration Contributions to Spark Sintering.
Elongation.
Elongation Variation with Density???See Sintered Ductility.
F
Feedstock Formulation.
Feedstock Viscosity???See Suspension Viscosity and Viscosity Model for Infection-molding Feedstock.
Feedstock Viscosity as a Function of Shear Rate???See Cross Model.
Feedstock Yield Strength???See Yield Strength of Particle-Polymer Feedstock.
Fiber-fracture from Buckling.
Fiber-fracture Probability.
Fiber Packing Density.
Fick???s First Law.
Fick???s Second Law.
Field-activated Sintering.
G
Gas-absorption Surface Area???See BET Specific Surface Area.
Gas-atomization Cooling Rate.
Gas-atomization Melt Flow Rate.
Gas-atomization Particle Size.
Gas-generated Final Pores.
Gas Permeability???See Kozeny-Carman Equation.
Gate Strain Rate in Injection Molding.
Gaudin-Schuhmann distribution.
Gaussian Distribution.
Gel-densification Model.
H
Hall-Petch Relation.
Hardenability Factor.
Hardness.
Hardness Variation with Grain Size in Cemented Carbides.
Heating-rate Effect in Transient Liquid-phase Sintering.
Heat Transfer in Sintered Materials.
Heat-transfer Rate in Modeling???See Cooling Rate in Molding.
Herring Scaling Law.
Hertzian stress???See Elastic Deformation Neck-size Ratio.
Heterodiffusion???See Mixed-powder Sintering Shrinkage.
I
Impregnation???See Infiltration Pressure.
Inertial-flow Equation.
Infiltration Depth.
Infiltration Pressure.
Infiltration Rate.
Inhibited Grain Growth???See Zener Relation.
Initial-stage Liquid-phase Sintering Stress???See Sintering Stress in Initial-stage Liquid-phase Sintering.
Initial-stage Neck Growth.
Initial-stage Sintering???See Surface Diffusion-Controlled Neck Growth.
Initial-stage Sintering Model???See Kuczynski Neck-growth Model.
J
Jar Milling.
Jet Mixing Time.
K
Kawakita Equation.
Kelvin Equation.
Kelvin Model???See Viscoelastic Model for Powder-Polymer Mixtures.
K-Factor.
Kingery Intermediate-stage Liquid-phase Sintering Model???See Intermediate???stage Liquid-phase Sintering Model.
Kingery Model for Pressure-assisted Liquid-phase Sintering???See Pressure-assisted Liquid-phase Sintering.
Kingery Rearrangement Shrinkage Kinetics???See Rearrangement Kinetics in Initial-stage Liquid-phase Sintering.
Kissinger Method.
Knoop Hardness.
Knudsen Diffusion???See Vapor Mean Free Path.
L
Laminar Flow Settling???See Stokes??? Law.
Laplace Equation.
Laplace Number???See Suratman Number.
Laser Sintering.
Lattice Diffusion???See Vacancy Diffusion.
Lifschwiz, Slyozov, Wagner Model.
Ligament Pinching???See Raleigh Instability.
Limiting Neck Size.
Limiting Size for Sedimentation Analysis.
Liquid and Solid Compositions in Prealloy Particle Melting.
M
Macroscopic Sintering Model Constitutive Equations.
Magnetic Coercivity Correlation in Cemented Carbides.
Mass Flow Rate in Atomization???See Gas-atomization Melt Flow Rate.
Master Decomposition Curve.
Master Sintering Curve.
Master Sintering Curve for Grain Growth???See Grain-growth Master Curve.
Maximum Density in Pressure-assisted Sintering.
Maximum Ejection Stress.
Maximum Grain Size in Sintering.
Maximum Lubricant Content.
N
Nabarro-Herring Creep-controlled Pressure-assisted Densification.
Nanoparticle Agglomeration.
Nanoparticle Melting-point Depression.
Nanoscale Particle-Agglomerate Spheroidization.
Nanoscale Particle-size Effect on Surface Energy???See Surface-energy variation with Droplet Size.
Neck-curvature Stress.
Neck Growth Early in Liquid-phase Sintering.
Neck Growth-induced Shrinkage???See Shrinkage Relation to Neck Size.
Neck Growth Limited by Grain Growth.
Neck-growth Model???See Kuczynski neck-growth Model.
O
Open-pore Content.
Optimal Packing Particle-size Distribution???See Andreasen Size Distribution.
Optimal Mixer Rotational Speed.
Ordered Packing.
Osprey Process???See Spray Deposition.
Ostwald Ripening.
Oxide Reduction.
P
Packing Density for Log-normal Particles.
Particle Cooling in Atomization???See Newtonian Cooling Approximation.
Particle Coordination Number???See Coordination Number and Density.
Particle Diffusion in Mixing.
Particle Fracture in Milling.
Particle Packing.
Particle-shape Index.
Particle Size???See Equivalent Spherical Diameter and Mean Particle Size.
Particle-size Analysis???See Sieve Progression.
Particle size and Apparent Density.
Q
Quantitative-microscopy Determination of Surface Area???See Surface Area by Quantitative Microscopy.
Quasi-3-dimensional Energy-governing Equation for Powder Injection Molding???See Energy-governing Equation for Powder Injection Molding.
Quasi-3-dimensional Pressure-governing Equation for Powder Injection Modeling???See Pressure-governing Equation in Powder Injection Molding.
Quasi-3-dimensional Pressure-governing Equation for Powder Injection Molding with Slip-layer Model???See Pressure-governing Equation in Powder Injection Molding with Slip-layer Model.
Quasi-3-dimensional Pressure-governing Equation for Powder Injection Molding with Slip-velocity Model???See Pressure-governing Equation in 2.5 Dimensions for Powder Injection Molding with Slip-velocity Model.
R
Radial Crush Strength???See Bearing Strength.
Radiant Heating.
Raleigh Instability.
Random Packing Density.
Random Packing Radial-distribution Function.
Reaction-controlled Grain Growth???See Grain-growth Master Curve, Interfacial Reaction Control, and Interface-controlled Grain Growth.
Reaction-rate Equation???See Avrami Equation.
Reactive Synthesis.
Rearrangement Kinetics in Liquid-phase Sintering.
Recalescence Temperature.
S
Saddle-surface Stress???See Neck-curvature Stress.
Scherrer Formula.
Screen Sizes???See Sieve Progression.
Secondary Dendrite-Arm Spacing.
Secondary Recrystallization???See Abnormal Grain Growth.
Second-stage Liquid-phase Sintering Model???See Intermediate-stage Liquid-phase Sintering Model.
Second-stage Sintering Densification???See Intermediate-stage Sintering-density Model.
Second-stage Sintering Pore Elimination???See Intermediate-stage Pore Elimination.
Second-stage Sintering Surface-area Reduction???See Intermediate-stage Surface-area Reduction.
Sedimentation Particle-size Analysis???See Stokes??? Law Particle-size Analysis.
T
Tap Density???See Vibration-induced Particle Packing.
Temperature Adjustments for Equivalent Sintering.
Temperature Dependence???See Arrhenius Relation.
Terminal Density???See Final-stage Sintering Limited Density.
Terminal Neck Size???See Neck Growth Limited by Grain Growth.
Terminal Neck Size in Sintering???See Limiting Neck Size.
Terminal Pore Size???See Final-stage Pore Size.
Terminal Settling Velocity???See Stokes??? Law.
Terminal Sintering???See Trapped-gas Pore Stabilization.
Terminal Velocity???See Acceleration of Free-settling Particles.
U
Ultrasonic Velocity.
V
Vacancy Concentration Dependence on Surface Curvature.
Vacancy Diffusion.
Vacuum Debinding???See Vacuum Thermal Debinding.
Vacuum Distillation Rate.
Vacuum Flux in Sintering.
Vacuum Thermal Debinding.
Vapor Mean Free Path.
Vapor Pressure.
Vibration-induced Particle Packing.
Vickers Hardness Number.
W
Washburn Equation.
Water-atomization Particle Size.
Water Immersion Density???See Archimedes Density.
Weber Number.
Weibull Distribution.
Wetting Angle.
Wicking.
Work Hardening???See Strain Hardening.
Work of Sintering???See Master Sintering Curve.
X
X-ray Line Broadening???See Scherrer Formula.
Y
Yield Strength in Viscous Flow???See Bingham Viscous-flow Model.
Yield Strength of Particle???Polymer Feedstock
Young???s Equation???See Contact Angle and Wetting Angle.
Young???s Modulus???See Elastic Modulus.
Z
Zener Relation.
Zeta Potential.
Appendix.
References.