Synopses & Reviews
The tobacco BY-2 cell system is a unique model cell line for the study of dynamic features of plant cells. As extension of Volume 53, Tobacco BY-2 Cells, which presented basic aspects of the cell system, this present volume provides a wealth of new approaches. This latest volume in the series is an invaluable source of information for scientists in basic and applied plant biology.
It is our utmost pleasure to present a new book on tobacco BY-2 cells, Tobacco BY-2 Cells: From Cellular Dynamics to Omics, as the 58th volume in the book series Biotechnology in Agriculture and Forestry (BAF). It represents an ext- sion of the previous book Tobacco BY-2 Cells, vol. 53ofthe BAF. Moreover, the content is rather different from the latter and includes new topics, gleaned from the First International Symposium on Tobacco BY-2 Cells held at the Plant Science Center of the RIKEN, Yokohama, organized by Nagata, Matsuoka and Inze, in September 2004. To this symposium came more than 200 people from different parts of the world to discuss issues. Although most of the contributors to thepreviousvolumeof Tobacco BY-2 Cells gave talks on their subjects, there were many other speakers who presented new topics and approaches. So we enjoyed the symposium very much. Thus we decided to compile a new volume on tobacco BY-2 cells which includes these new topics. In addition, towards the end of the symposium, our common understanding was that the tobacco BY-2 cell system is still important in plant biology, in particular for studying the dynamic features of plant cells. We hope this volume is useful for plant biologists. Contents of the book are as follows: in Chapters I. 1 I. 6, various aspects of the cell cycle and cellular dynamics using BY-2 cells are described. In Ch- ters II. 1 II."
The tobacco BY-2 cell system is a unique model cell line for the study of dynamic features of plant cells. As extension of Volume 53, Tobacco BY-2 Cells, which presented basic aspects of the cell system, this present volume provides a wealth of new approaches. Topics include: various aspects of the cell cycle and cellular dynamics using BY-2 cells; physiological and developmental aspects of BY-2 cells; recent developments in the knowledge of intracellular traffic of BY-2 cells; BY-2 cells as hosts for infectious diseases; dynamic features of mitochondrial fusion and division; BY-2 cells as tools to elucidate the biosynthesis of isoprenoids; recent developments in the omics of BY-2 cells; and novel techniques for handling BY-2 cells. This latest volume in the series is an invaluable source of information for scientists in basic and applied plant biology.
Table of Contents
Section I Cell Cycle and Cellular Dynamics I.1 Novel Approaches for Cell Cycle Analysis in BY-2 Olga A. Koroleva, Gethin R. Roberts, Matthew L. Tomlinson, and John H. Doonan 1 Introduction 2 A Modified alc-Inducible System for Transgene Expression in BY-2 3 Use of the alc System to Define the Time of Action of Induced Protein 4 An Example of Functional Analysis Using the AlcR-GR Gene Switch 5 Transient Protein Expression 6 Emerging Techniques 7 Protocols 8 Composition of Media References I.2 Dynamics and Structure of the Preprophase Band and the Phragmoplast Danny Geelen and Dirk Inzé 1 Introduction 2 The Preprophase Band (PPB) 3 The Phragmoplast 4 Future Perspectives References I.3 Formation of Cortical Microtubules in a Cell-Free System Prepared from Plasma Membrane Ghosts and a Cytosolic Extract of BY-2 Cells Takashi Murata and Mitsuyasu Hasebe 1 Introduction 2 Microtubules Nucleate as Branches on Existing Microtubules in the Cortical Arrays of Plant Cells 3 Analysis of the Molecular Mechanisms of Microtubule Nucleation in a BY-2 Cell-Free System 4 Future Perspectives References I.4 Chromosome Dynamics in Tobacco BY-2 Cultured Cells Sachihiro Matsunaga, Nobuko Ohmido, and Kiichi Fukui 1 Introduction 2 Dynamic Analysis of Condensin Complexes 3 Dynamic Analysis of Heterochromatic Protein 1 4 Dynamic Analysis of Aurora Kinases 5 Conclusion and Perspectives References I.5 Ion Channels Meet Cell Cycle Control Rainer Hedrich and Dirk Becker 1 Introduction 2 Cell Elongation 3 Cell Cycle 4 Discussion References I.6 The NACK-PQR MAP Kinase Cascade Controls Plant Cytokinesis Michiko Sasabe, Yuji Takahashi, Takashi Soyano, Hirokazu Tanaka, Ken Kousetsu, Takamasa Suzuki, and Yasunori Machida 1 Introduction 2 Plant Cytokinesis 3 The MAPK Cascade Involved in Cytokinesis 4 Regulation of the NACK-PQR Pathway in the Cell Cycle Machinery 5 Downstream Factors of the NACK-PQR Pathway 6 Future Perspectives References Section II Physiological and Developmental Aspects II.1 Characterization of a Cell Division Factor from Auxin-Autotrophic 2B-13 Cells Derived from the Tobacco BY-2 Cell Line Takashi Shimizu, Kentaro Eguchi, Ikuo Nishida, Kris Laukens, Erwin Witters, and Toshiyuki Nagata 1 Introduction 2 Characterization of Cell Division-Inducing Activity in the Culture Filtrates of 2B-13 Cells 3 Purification of the CDF 4 Searches for CDFs in the Culture Filtrates of Tobacco BY-2 Cells 5 Concluding Remarks and Future Perspectives 6 Protocols References II.2 The BY-2 Cell Line as a Tool to Study Auxin Transport Jan Petrášek and Eva Zažímalová 1 Introduction 2 Present State of the Art of Cell-to-Cell Transport of Auxins 3 Auxin Transport Studies in Planta 4 Auxin Transport Studies in Simplified Models 5 Concluding Remarks and Future Prospects References II.3 Tobacco BY-2 Cells as a Model for Differentiation in Heterotrophic Plant Cells Yutaka Miyazawa and Atsushi Sakai 1 Introduction 2 Hormonal Factors Affecting Starch-Storing Cell Differentiation in BY-2 Cells 3 Regulations of Gene Expressions Required for Differentiation and Dedifferentiation of Starch-Storing Cells 4 Conclusions and Perspectives References Section III Intracellular Traffic III.1 Imaging the Early Secretory Pathway in BY-2 Cells David G. Robinson and Christophe Ritzenthaler 1 The Early Secretory Pathway in Plants: A Brief Introduction 2 General Description of the BY-2 Endomembrane System 3 The Golgi Apparatus: Structure, Motility and Behaviour During Mitosis 4 The Endoplasmic Reticulum: Distribution and ER-Export Sites (ERES) 5 BY-2 Cells: A Model System for Studying the Action of BFA 6 Appendix: Standard Fixation Protocols for Electron Microscopy and Immunostaining References III.2 Molecular Study of Prevacuolar Compartments in Transgenic Tobacco BY-2 Cells Sze Wan Lo and Liwen Jiang 1 Introduction 2 Results and Discussion 3 Conclusions 4 Protocols References III.3 Autophagy and Non-Classical Vacuolar Targeting in Tobacco BY-2 Cells Kiminori Toyooka and Ken Matsuoka 1 Introduction 2 Autophagy 3 Protein Aggregation and Degradation 4 Direct Transport from the ER to the Vacuole 5 Concluding Remarks References Section IV As a Host for Infectious Diseases IV.1 In Vitro Translation and Replication of Tobamovirus RNA in a Cell-Free Extract of Evacuolated Tobacco BY-2 Protoplasts Kazuhiro Ishibashi, Keisuke Komoda, and Masayuki Ishikawa 1 Introduction 2 Commercial Wheat Germ Extract and Rabbit Reticulocyte Lysate Can Support the Translation but not the Replication of Tobamovirus RNA 3 Establishment of an in Vitro Translation--Replication System for Plant Viral RNA with an Extract of Evacuolated BY-2 Protoplasts 4 Conclusion and Perspectives 5 Protocols References IV.2 Using BY-2 Cells to Investigate Agrobacterium--Plant Interactions Stanton B. Gelvin 1 Introduction 2 In What Form Is T-DNA Transferred from Agrobacterium to Plant Cells? 3 How Soon after Agrobacterium Infection Can we Detect Transgene Expression? 4 Using Tobacco BY-2 Cells to Follow the Journey of T-DNA Through the Plant Cell 5 Using Tobacco BY-2 Cells to Investigate the Response of Plant Cells to Agrobacterium Infection 6 Conclusion References IV.3 Regulation of Elicitor-Induced Defense Responses by Ca2+ Channels and the Cell Cycle in Tobacco BY-2 Cells Yasuhiro Kadota and Kazuyuki Kuchitsu 1 Introduction 2 Elicitor-Induced Cytosolic Free Ca2+ Concentration ([Ca2+]cyt) Change and its Regulatory Mechanisms 3 Involvement of Putative Voltage-Dependent Ca2+ Permeable Channels, NtTPC1A/B, in Elicitor Signaling 4 Elicitor-Induced Cell Cycle Arrest 5 Cell Cycle Dependence of Elicitor-Induced Defense Signaling 6 Conclusion 7 Protocols References Section V Other Cellular Functions V.1 Dynamic Mitochondria, their Fission and Fusion in Higher Plants Shin-ichi Arimura and Nobuhiro Tsutsumi 1 Introduction 2 Mitochondrial Fission 3 Mitochondrial Fusion 4 Conclusions and Perspectives References V.2 The Use of Tobacco BY-2 Cells to Elucidate the Biosynthesis and Essential Functions of Isoprenoids Andréa Hemmerlin, Esther Gerber, Marie-Andrée Hartmann, Denis Tritsch, Dring N. Crowell, Michel Rohmer, and Thomas J. Bach 1 Introduction 2 The Use of Tobacco BY-2 Cells for Biosynthetic Studies 3 Incorporation of Stably Labelled Glucose into Selected Isoprenoid End-Products 4 Incorporation of Additional Pathway-Specific, Stably Labelled Precursors 5 Incorporation of Pathway-Specific Radiolabelled Precursors 6 In Vivo Effects of Isoprenoid Precursors and Pathway Intermediates 7 Isoprenylation of Proteins in BY-2 Cells 8 Conclusion and Outlook References Section VI Omics VI.1 Tobacco BY-2 Proteome Display, Protein Profiling and Annotation Using Two-Dimensional Electrophoresis and Mass Spectrometry-Based Cross-Species Identification Kris Laukens and Erwin Witters 1 Introduction 2 Gel-Based Analysis of the BY-2 Proteome 3 MS-Based Protein Structure Analysis 4 Searching Sequence Databases with BY-2 Peptide Mass Spectra 5 Proteomic Data Integration 6 Concluding Remarks 7 Protocols References VI.2 EST and Microarray Analysis of Tobacco BY-2 Cells Ken Matsuoka and Ivan Galis 1 Introduction 2 The RIKEN Tobacco BY-2 EST and BY-2 Microarray 3 An Example of Microarray-Based Analysis: Jasmonate-Dependent Gene Expression and Metabolic Studies 4 Future Perspectives References VI.3 Proteomics of Tobacco Bright Yellow-2 (BY-2) Cell Culture Plastids M. Asim Siddique, Wilhelm Gruissem, and Sacha Baginsky 1 Introduction 2 The Proteome of BY-2 Cell Culture Plastids 3 Concluding Remarks 4 Protocols for BY-2 Plastid Isolation and Protein Fractionation References Section VII Technical Advances VII.1 Cryopreservation of Tobacco BY-2 Suspension Cell Cultures Using an Encapsulation--Simple Prefreezing Method T. Kobayashi, T. Niino, and M. Kobayashi 1 Introduction 2 Methods for Cryopreservation of Cultured Plant Cells 3 Conditions for Cryopreservation of Cell Suspension Cultures 4 The Encapsulation--Simple Prefreezing Method for Cryopreservation of BY-2 5 Conclusion 6 Protocol References VII.2 High Throughput Microinjection Technology for the Single-Cell Analysis of BY-2 in Vivo Hideaki Matsuoka, Yohei Yamada, Ken Matsuoka, and Mikako Saito 1 Microinjection in the Post-Genome Era 2 Single-Cell Manipulation Supporting Robot (SMSR) 3 Microinjection of a Dominant-Negative Protein into BY-2 Cells 4 Concluding Remarks References Subject Index