Synopses & Reviews
"In this amazing tour d'horizon, D. Allan Bromley uses the occasion of the centenary of the American Physical Society to reflect upon the growth of physics over the past 100 years, its fragmentation into numerous subdisciplines, the impact physics has had upon modern technology, and creening of electric fields by mobile charges, such as electrons or ions, is a phenomenon affecting and even determining much of the physical world, from cosmic plasmas to lightning propagation, electronic devices, electrochemical machining, biopolymers, membranes, and neuronal activity. As a result of screening, the long-range Coulomb field of an electric charge is in effect canceled out. This work is the first comprehensive treatment of screening, particularly with respect to out-of-equilibrium systems. It is divided into two parts. The first outlines the principles of screening at equilibrium or near equilibrium, while the second is devoted to the case of strong deviations from equilibrium. A great strength of this text is its unique interdisciplinary exposition, which sometimes leads to an unconventional presentation of classical results. Following the introduction of each major concept, applications to different subject areas are described, and further developed by exercises, with solutions provided. The extensive list of references will be useful to both graduate student and researcher. The material presented is an outgrowth of a first-year graduate course delivered at the University of Paris VI. The exposition is at a fairly general and elementary mathematical level, requiring only a basic knowledge of electromagnetism, quantum mechanics, and thermal physics. Coulomb Screening by Mobile Charges will fill a gap in the current literature, gathering some very different and exciting phenomena under the unifying concept of screening. It should appeal to scientists and engineers from the areas of solid state physics, materials science, electrical engineering, electrochemistry, and biophysics. Table of Contents: Preface Introduction I-1 What Is Screening? I-2 The Fundamental Problem of Screening: Small Fixed Point Charges in a Boltzmann Gas of Free Charged Particles I-3 References PART I: Distributions of Charges at Equilibrium or Near Equilibrium Chapter I: Screening of a Weak Static Charge Distribution I-A Gas of Classical Charged Particles (Maxwell-Boltzmann Statistics) I-B) Anisotropic Medium or Reduced Dimensionality I-C) Fermion Gas (Electrons in a Metal) Problems References Chapter II: Screening of a Static Charge Distribution Beyond the Linear Regime. II-A) General Formalism with Local Constitutive Equation II-B) Semiconductor Surfaces and Interfaces II-C) Electrochemical Interfaces: The Double Layer II-D) Biophysical Systems II-E) Fermion Systems Problems References Chapter III: Time-Dependent Charge Distributions: The Generalized Dielectric Function \epsilon( q \omega) III-A) Spatially Uniform, Time-Dependent Perturbation: \epsilon(\omega) III-B) Spatially Variable, Time-Dependent Perturbation: \epsilon( q \omega) III-C Appendix: A More Elaborate Version of Linear-Response Theory Problems References Chapter IV: Applications of \epsilon( q \omega) to Practical Problems IV-A) Motion of an External Charge through the System IV-B) Plasmons in the Solid State Problems References PART B: Distributions of Charges Far from Equilibrium Chapter V: Screening Survival: The Quasi-Neutrality Approximation V-A) General Formalism V-B) Quasi-Neutrality Approximation in Semiconductor Physics V-C) Quasi-Neutrality Approximation in Electrochemistry and Biology Problems References Chapter VI: Screening Breakdown: Space-Charge-Limited Currents VI-A) Electrons in Vacuum: Child's Law VI-B) Transport of a Single Type of Charge in a Solid VI-C) Injection of Two Types of Charges VI-D) Importance of the Boundary Conditions: Mixed Conductors and Binary Electrolytes Problems References Conclusion Index of Symbols General Index"
"...A panoramic view of the physics landscape of the past century, in which are embedded an impressive number of major physics accomplishments. And [the book] describes these accomplishments in a language that is comprehensible to an educated reader with or without training in physics...In choice of topics, Bromley is about as complete as can be imagined...An immensely entertaining and illuminating read." PHYSICS TODAY "Springer presents an expanded narrative with Bromley's fine sampling of images of 20th-century physics...Bromley's upbeat text will convince you that there's a wealth of work to keep physicists busy while Super-K is put back together." --American Scientist "Pictures are the stars of this book, bringing the highly readable narrative to life. The reader's eyes are spoiled by images...he covers topics as diverse as superconductivity and the evolution of computers...and covers the research activity of laboratories all around the world." --www.cerncourier.com PHYSICS TODAY "The accomplishments of physics in the 20th century are among the most illustrious achievements of our civilization, and Bromley is certainly one of those advocates of physics with the credentials to articulate them. Given so nearly impossible a task, Bromley nevertheless manages to pull it off...in a language that is comprehensible to an educated reader with or without training in physics...In choice of topics, Bromley is about as complete as can be imagined...I found the volume to be an immensely entertaining and illuminating read, and I was greatly impressed by the amount of thought and just plain hard work the author imposed on himself to get it done."
In this amazing tour d'horizon, D. Allan Bromley uses the occasion of the centenary of the American Physical Society to reflect upon the growth of physics over the past 100 years, its fragmentation into numerous subdisciplines, the impact physics has had upon modern technology, and the re-emergence of the fundamental unity of the discipline in recent years. Hundreds of historical illustrations accompany the text. Bromley conveys much of the excitement and wonder that research in physics generated in the 20th century and asks what new things are in store in the next century. He covers such topics as relativity and quantum mechanics, the Manhattan project, superconductivity, transistors and the revolution brought about by solid-state electronics, protein folding, the uses of nuclear and atomic physics in biology and medicine, plate tectonics, the expansion of the universe and the Big Bang, and gravitational radiation. Bromley is the Sterling Professor of the Sciences and Dean of Yale University.||From the reviews:||"...A panoramic view of the physics landscape of the past century, in which are embedded an impressive number of major physics accomplishments. And [the book] describes these accomplishments in a language that is comprehensible to an educated reader with or without training in physics...In choice of topics, Bromley is about as complete as can be imagined...An immensely entertaining and illuminating read."|- Physics Today
In this "Cook's Tour" of developments in physics and realted fields, D. Allan Bromley, Science Advisor to President Bush during 1989-1983 and past president of the American Physical Society, conveys much of the excitement and wonder that research in physics generated in the 20th century and asks what new things are in store in the next century.
Table of Contents
PART 1: An Historical Overview, 1900-1949 Introduction / What is Physics? / The Early 20th Century / Activities in the Cambridge Cavendish Laboratory / The Development of Quantum Mechanics / 1932--Annus Mirabilis / The Discovery of Nuclear Fission / The Manhattan Project / The MIT Radiation Laboratory / The Merger of Natural Philosophy and Invention / Physics in the 1930's / The Immediate Post-War Period. PART 2: The Explosive Growth of Post-War Physics, 1950-1999 Introduction / Materials Science / Superconductivity / Buckyballs and Nanotubes / Surface Science / Fluid Physics / Self-Similarity / Development of the Transistor / The Evolution of Computers / Breakthroughs in Communications / Computational Chemistry / Folding of Proteins / Photon Probes / Improved Resolution and Higher Precision / Trapping and Cooling of Elementary Particles and Atoms / Bose-Einstein Condensates / Frontiers of Nuclear Structure Physics / The Phase Diagram of Nuclear Matter / Atomic and Nuclear Technology in Biology & Medicine / The Merging of Elementary Particle Physics & Cosmology / The Standard Model / The Building Blocks of Nature / String Theory / Plasma Physics / Plate Tectonics in Geophysics / The Structure of Supernovae / Gravitational Radiation / The Evolution of Our Universe / The COBE Measurements on the CMB / The Inflationary Universe / The Structure of the Milky Way Galaxy / The Gross Structure of Our Universe / Gravitational Lensing / Concluding Remarks