Synopses & Reviews
The field of animal acoustic communication has experienced exciting growth in recent years as techniques borrowed from many scientific disciplines have been applied in new ways. For a modern, integrated approach to research in comparative bioacoustics, researchers need access to a wealth of technical an methodological information. This volume answers that need. Animal Acoustic Communication not only provides researchers with an update on the most recent techniques, especially the application of digital computers, but also offers in a single volume an overview of all aspects of this field of study. Its consistent, readable style makes this volume an accessible handbook for students and a valuable resource for more established researchers.
The last decades have brought a significant increase in research on acoustic communi- cation in animals. Publication of scientific papers on both empirical and theoretical aspects of this topic has greatly increased, and a new journal, Bioacoustics, is entirely devoted to such articles. Coupled with this proliferation of work is a recognition that many of the current issues are best approached with an interdisciplinary perspective, requiring technical and theoretical contributions from a number of areas of inquiry that have traditionally been separated. With the notable exception of a collection edited by Lewis (1983), there have been fewvolumes predominatelyfocused on technical issues in comparative bioacoustics to follow up the earlyworks edited by Lanyon and Tavolga (1960) and Busnel (1963). It was the tremendous growth of expertise c: ()ncerning this topic in particular that provided the initial impetus to organize this volume, which attempts to present fundamental information from both theoretical and applied aspects of current bioacoustics research. While a completely comprehensive review would be impractical, this volume offers a basic treatment of a wide variety of topics aimed at providing a conceptual framework within which researchers can address their own questions. Each presentation is designed to be useful to the broadest possible spectrum of researchers, including both those currently working in any of the many and diverse disciplines of bioacoustics, and others that may be new to such studies.
Table of Contents
Chapter 1 Acoustic Signals of Animals: Recording, Field Measurements, Analysis and Description H. C. Gerhardt 1 Introduction 2 Field Recordings and Measurements 2.1 Equipment 2.2 On-Site Measurements 2.3 Signal Amplitude, Directionality, and Background Noise Levels 2.4 Patterns of Sound Propagation in Natural Habitats 3 Laboratory Analysis of Animal Sounds 3.1 Terminology 3.2 Temporal and Spectral Analysis: Some General Principles 4 Examples of Descriptions and Analyses 4.1 Temporal Properties of Pulsatile Calls 4.2 Amplitude-Time Envelopes 4.3 Relationships between Fine-Scale Temporal and Spectral Properties 4.4 Spectrally Complex Calls 5 Summary References.- Chapter 2 Digital Signal Acquisition and Representation M. Clements 1 Introduction 2 Digital Signal Processing 2.1 Major Applications of DSP 2.2 Definition of Digital Systems 2.3 Difference Equations 3 Digital Filter Frequency Response 3.1 Unit-Sample Response Characterization 3.2 Frequency-Domain Interpretation of Systems 3.3 Frequency-Domain Interpretation of Signals 4 Conversion Between Analog and Digital Data Forms 4.1 The Sampling Theorem 4.2 Signal Recovery by Filtering 4.3 Fourier Transform Relations 4.4 Effects of Sampling Rates 4.5 Reconstruction 5 Fundamental Digital Processing Techniques 5.1 Power Spectra 5.2 Time and Frequency Resolution 5.3 Windows 5.4 Spectral Smoothing 5.5 The Discrete Fourier Transform 5.6 Correlation 5.7 Autocorrelation 5.8 Cross-correlation 5.9 Spectrograms 6 An Intoduction to Some Advanced Topics 6.1 Digital Filtering 6.2 Linear Prediction 6.3 Homomorphic Analysis 7 Summary.- Chapter 3 Digital Signal Analysis, Editing, and Synthesis K. Beeman 1 Introduction 2 Temporal and Spectral Measurements 3 Time-Varying Amplitude Analysis 3.1 Amplitude Envelopes 3.2 Gate Functions 4 Spectral Analysis 4.1 Power Spectrum Features 4.2 Measuring Similarity Among Power Spectra 4.3 Other Spectral Analysis Techniques 5 Spectrographic Analysis 5.1 Spectrogram Generation 5.2 Spectrogram Display 5.3 Spectrogram Parameter Measurements 6 Classification of Naturally Occurring Animal Sounds 6.1 Properties of Ideal Signals 6.1.1 Periodicity 6.1.2 Amplitude Modulation 6.1.3 Frequency Modulation 6.1.4 Biologically Relevant Sound Types 7 Time-varying Frequency Analysis 7.1 Deriving Spectral Contours 7.2 Sound-similarity Comparison 8 Digital Sound Synthesis 8.1 Editing 8.2 Arithmetic Manipulation and Generation of Sound 8.3 Synthesis Models 8.3.1 Tonal Model 8.4 Sources of and A Functions 8.4.1 Mathematically Based Functions 8.4.2 Functions Derived from Natural Sounds 9 Sound Manipulation and Generation Techniques 9.1 Duration Scaling 9.2 Amplitude-Envelope Manipulations 9.3 Spectral Manipulations 9.3.1 Frequency Shifting and Scaling 9.3.2 Frequency Modulation 9.4 Synthesis of Biological Sound Types 9.4.1 Tonal and Polytonal Signals 9.4.2 Pulse-Repetition Signals 9.4.3 Harmonic Signals 9.4.4 Noisy Signals 9.5 Miscellaneous Synthesis Topics 9.5.1 Template Sounds 9.5.2 Noise Removal 10 Summary References.- Chapter 4 Application of Filters in Bioacoustics P. K. Stoddard 1 Introduction 2 General Uses of Filters and Some Cautions 3 Anatomy and Performance of a Filter 4 Properties of Various Analog Filters 5 Antialiasing and Antiimaging Filters 5.1 A/D Conversion Requires an Analog Lowpass Filter 5.2 Choosing an Antialiasing Filter 5.3 D/A Conversion also Requires an Analog Lowpass Filter 5.4 Analog Filters: Passive Versus Active Components 6 Analog Versus Digital Filters 6.1 Designs and Functions of Digital Filters 6.2 Cascaded Filters and Repeated Filtering 7 Special Uses of and Considerations Regarding Digital Filters 7.1 Segment Filtering and Elimination of Edge Effects 7.2 Zero-Delay Filtering 7.3 Decimation 7.4 Simulated Echo 7.5 Recreating Environmental Attenuation and Reverberation 7.6 Matched Filters and Signal Detection 8 Reducing Environmental Noise: An Example Using an FIR Filter and a Simple Matched Filter 9 Endnote: Solution to the Puzzle of the Disappearing Half-Masked Weaver Bird Voice References.- Chapter 5 Applying Linear Predictive Coding (LPC) to Frequency-spectrum Analysis of Animal Acoustic Signals M.J. Owren and R.H. Bernacki 1 Introduction 2 Sound Spectrography 2.1 Analysis Bandwidth and Analog Spectrograph Design 2.2 Amplitude Representation in Analog Spectrograms 2.3 Conclusions 3 Linear Predictive Coding 3.1 Three LPC Modeling Approaches 3.1.1 Linear Regression 3.1.2 Inverse Filtering 3.1.3 Partial Correlation 3.2 Filters Derived from Regression Coefficients 3.3 Quantifying the Frequency Spectrum 3.4 Analysis Parameters 3.4.1 Analysis Window Size and Shape 3.4.2 Number of Coefficients 3.4.3 Preemphasis (High-Frequency Shaping) 3.5 Computational Methods Used in LPC Analysis 3.5.1 Autocorrelation 3.5.2 Covariance 3.5.3 Partial Correlation 4 Applying LPC to Animal Signals 4.1 Applicability 4.2 Analysis Parameters 4.2.1 Analysis Window Size and Shape 4.2.2 Number of Coefficients 4.2.3 Preemphasis 4.3 Some Previous Applications 5 LPC Synthesis 6 Conclusions 7 Summary References.- Section II: Production and Transmission Chapter 6 Acoustic Communication Under the Sea P. L. Tyack 1 Introduction 1.1 Invertebrates 1.2 Fish 1.3 Marine Mammals 1.4 Organization of This Chapter 2 Elementary Acoustics 2.1 Frequency and Wavelength 2.2 Sound Pressure Level and the Decibel 3 Propagation of Sound in the Sea 3.1 Transmission Loss 3.2 Absorption 3.3 Sonar Equation 3.3.1 Long-Range Sound Transmission by Whales 3.3.2 Using the Sonar Equation to Estimate the Range of Detection for Finback Pulses 3.3.3 Echolocating Dolphins 3.3.4 Using the Noise-Limited Active Sonar Equation to Estimate the Range of Dolphin Echolocation 4 Hearing Under the Sea: How Do Marine Animals Receive Acoustic Signals? 5 Communicative Significance of Marine Animal Sounds 5.1 Invertebrates 5.2 Fish 5.3 Marine Mammals 5.3.1 Reproductive Advertisement Displays 5.3.2 Individual and Group Recognition with Special Emphasis on Sounds of Toothed Whales 5.3.3 Vocal Learning Among Marine Mammals 5.4 Sound Classification 5.5 Acoustic Localization and Telemetry Open New Windows on Communication Among Marine Animals 6 Acoustic Impact of Human Activities on Marine Animals References.- Chapter 7 Ultrasound and Infrasound J. D. Pye and W. R. Langbauer, Jr. 1 Introduction 2 A Brief Historical Overview 3 Sources of Ultrasound and Infrasound 4 Echolocation 4.1 Countermeasures Shown by Prey Species 5 Ultrasonic Communication 6 Infrasonic Communication 7 Physical Properties of Ultrasound and Infrasound 7.1 Atmospheric Attenuation 7.2 Wavelength-Related Effects 7.2.1 Directionality of Ultrasound 7.2.2 Sound-Collecting Effects 7.2.3 Ground Attenuation Effects on Infrasound 8 Sound Localization 9 Directional Sound Emission 10 Instrumentation and Techniques 10.1 Microphones 10.2 Recorders 10.3 Loudspeakers 10.4 Ultrasound Detectors 10.4.1 Time-expansion methods. 10.5 Infrasound Detectors 11 Summary References.- Chapter 8 Measuring and Modeling Speech Production P. Rubin and E. Vatikiotis-Bateson 1 Introduction 2 The Acoustic Theory of Speech Production and Acoustic Analysis 2.1 The Source-Filter Model 3 A Brief Comparison of Human and Nonhuman Vocal tract Characteristics 4 Acoustic Analysis 5 Measuring and Analyzing Speech Production 6 Different Limitations of Human and Animal Research 7 Overview of the Shifting Articulatory and Acoustic Emphases in Speech Research 8 A Paradigm for Speech Research 9 A Model of the Human Vocal Tract 10 Gestural Modeling 11 Summary References.- Chapter 9 Sound Production in Birds: Acoustics and Physiology Revisited A. S. Gaunt and S. Nowicki 1 Introduction 1.1 Diversity and Uniformity of Syringeal Structure and Function 1.2 Structural Considerations 1.3 Functional Considerations 2 New and Old Insights from New and Old Techniques 2.1 Air Flow and Phonation 2.2 Two Voicing and Peripheral Lateralization of Function 2.3 Tracheal Modulation 3 Quo Vadis? 3.1 Membrane Physiology and Vibration 3.2 Syringeal Physiology and Modulation 3.3 Vocal Tract Physiology and Tonal Quality 4 Summary References.- Section III Assessing Biologically Important Responses Chapter 10 Sound Playback Studies S. L. Hopp and E. S. Morton 1 Introduction 2 Sound Transmission and Habitat Acoustics 3 Design Considerations 3.1 Trial Structuring 3.2 Realism in Design 3.3 Dependent Measures 3.4 Analysis 3.5 Common Problems with Playback Studies 4 Uses of Playback 4.1 Censusing and Demographic Studies 4.2 Territory Studies 4.3 Inter- and Intraspecific Acoustic Interference 4.4 Distance Estimation and Ranging Theory 4.5 Cognition and Referential Studies 4.6 Studies of Vocal Development 4.7 Differential Responses to Signal Categories 4.7.1 Neighbor/Stranger Recognition 4.7.2 Geographically Based Dialects 4.7.3 Species Recognition 4.7.4 Mate Choice, Attraction, and Stimulation 4.7.5 Recognition of Kin, Social Group, Individual, and Offspring 4.8 Subject Variables 4.9 Perceptual Studies Summary References.- Chapter 11 The Laboratory Use of Conditional and Natural Responses in the Study of Avian Auditory Perception J . Cynx and S. J. Clark 1 Introduction 2 Conditional and Natural Responses 2.1 Animal Perception 2.2 Conditional Responses 2.3 Operant Conditioning 3 A History Specific to Songbirds 3.1 Sensory Measurements 3.2 Ergonomics for Birds 3.3 Overshadowing 3.4 Cognitive Measurements 3.5 Perceptual Maps 3.6 Studies of Birdsong Perception 3.7 Neuroethological Studies 3.7.1 Lateralization of Song Discrimination 3.7.2 Hormonal Mediation of Song Discrimination 3.8 Summary 4 Use of Natural Responses to Study Perception 4.1 Analyzing and Modifying Complex Stimuli 4.2 Individual, Population and Species Recognition 4.3 Species Song Recognition 4.4 Recognition of Dialects and Geographic Variation 4.5 Individual recognition 4.6 Sexual Selection and Song Preferences 5 General Considerations When Using Natural Response Methods 5.1 Internal Validity 5.2 External Validity 5.3 Construct Validity 6 Summary References.- Chapter 12 Assessing Hormonal Responses to Acoustic Stimulation G. F. Ball and A. M. Dufty Jr. 1 Introduction 2 A Basic Description of the Neuroendocrine System 3 The Measurement of Hormone-Dependent Structures and Behaviors in Response to Acoustic Stimulation 3.1 Methodological Issues Related to the Measurement of Acoustic Effects on the Size and Histology of the Gonads and Hormone-Dependent Structures and Behaviors 3.2 The Effects of Female Vocalizations on the Development of Testes and Spermatogenesis 3.3 The Effects of Male Vocalizations on the Development of the Ovaries and Hormone-Dependent Structures 3.4 Effects on the Frequency and Duration of Hormone-Dependent Behaviors 4 The Measurement of Hormones in the Blood in Response to Acoustic Stimulation 4.1 Methods for the Measurement of Hormones in the Blood 4.4.1 Spectrophotometry, Fluorimetry, and Gas-Liquid Chromatography Methods 4.1.2 Competitive Protein-Binding Assays, Radioimmunoassays, and Enzyme Immunoassays 4.2 Studies of Plasma Hormone Changes in Response to Social Stimuli in the Laboratory and the Field 4.3 Experimental Studies of Auditory Stimuli in Relation to Changes in Plasma Hormone Levels 4.4 Biochemical Measures of Brain Activation in Response to Acoustic Stimuli 5 Summary and Future Directions References.- Index