1 Introduction 1.1 Definition of Surveying
1.2 Geomatics
1.3 History of Surveying
1.4 Geodetic and Plane Surveys
1.5 Importance of Surveying
1.6 Specialized Types of Surveys
1.7 Surveying Safety
1.8 Land and Geographic Information Systems
1.9 Federal Surveying and Mapping Agencies
1.10 The Surveying Profession
1.11 Professional Surveying Organizations
1.12 Surveying on the Internet
1.13 Future Challenges in Surveying
Problems
Bibliography
2 Units, Significant Figures, and Field Notes
Part I Ï Units and Significant Figures
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Units of Measurement
2.3 International System of Units (SI)
2.4 Significant Figures
2.5 Rounding Off Numbers
Part II Ï Field Notes
2.6 Field Notes
2.7 General Requirements of Handwritten Field Notes
2.8 Types of Field Books
2.9 Kinds of Notes
2.10 Arrangements of Notes
2.11 Suggestions for Recording Notes
2.12 Introduction to Survey Controllers
2.13 Transfer of Files from Survey Controllers
2.14 Digital Data File Management
2.15 Advantages and Disadvantages of Survey Controllers
Problems
Bibliography
3 Theory of Errors in Observations
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Direct and Indirect Observations
3.3 Errors in Measurements
3.4 Mistakes
3.5 Sources of Errors in Making Observations
3.6 Types of Errors
3.7 Precision and Accuracy
3.8 Eliminating Mistakes and Systematic Errors
3.9 Probability
3.10 Most Probable Value
3.11 Residuals
3.12 Occurrence of Random Errors
3.13 General Laws of Probability
3.14 Measures of Precision
3.15 Interpretation of Standard Deviation
3.16 The 50, 90, and 95 Percent Errors
3.17 Error Propagation
3.17.1 Error of a Sum
3.17.2 Error of a Series
3.17.3 Error of a Product
3.17.4 Error of the Mean
3.18 Applications
3.19 Conditional Adjustment of Observations
3.20 Weights of Observations
3.21 Least-Squares Adjustment
3.22 Using Software
Problems
Bibliography
4 Leveling—Theory, Methods, and Equipment
Part I Ï Leveling—Theory and Methods
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Definitions
4.3 North American Vertical Datum
4.4 Curvature and Refraction
4.5 Methods for Determining Differences in Elevation
4.5.1 Measuring Vertical Distances by Taping or Electronic Methods
4.5.2 Differential Leveling
4.5.3 Barometric Leveling
4.5.4 Trigonometric Leveling
Part II Ï Equipment for Differential Leveling
4.6 Categories of Levels
4.7 Telescopes
4.8 Level Vials
4.9 Tilting Levels
4.10 Automatic Levels
4.11 Digital Levels
4.12 Tripods
4.13 Hand Level
4.14 Level Rods
4.15 Testing and Adjusting Levels
4.15.1 Requirements for Testing and Adjusting Instruments
4.15.2 Adjusting for Parallax
4.15.3 Testing and Adjusting Level Vials
4.15.4 Preliminary Adjustment of the Horizontal Cross Hair
4.15.5 Testing and Adjusting the Line of Sight
Problems
Bibliography
5 Leveling—Field Procedures and Computations
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Carrying and Setting Up a Level
5.3 Duties of a Rodperson
5.4 Differential Leveling
5.5 Precision
5.6 Adjustments of Simple Level Circuits
5.7 Reciprocal Leveling
5.8 Three-Wire Leveling
5.9 Profile Leveling
5.9.1 Staking and Stationing the Reference Line
5.9.2 Field Procedures for Profile Leveling
5.9.3 Drawing and Using the Profile
5.10 Grid, Cross-Section, or Borrow-Pit Leveling
5.11 Use of the Hand Level
5.12 Sources of Error in Leveling
5.12.1 Instrumental Errors
5.12.2 Natural Errors
5.12.3 Personal Errors
5.13 Mistakes
5.14 Reducing Errors and Eliminating Mistakes
5.15 Using Software
Problems
Bibliography
6 Distance Measurement
Part I Ï Methods for Measuring Distances
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Summary of Methods for Making Linear Measurements
6.3 Pacing
6.4 Odometer Readings
6.5 Optical Rangefinders
6.6 Tacheometry
6.7 Subtense Bar
Part II Ï Distance Measurements by Taping
6.8 Introduction to Taping
6.9 Taping Equipment and Accessories
6.10 Care of Taping Equipment
6.11 Taping on Level Ground
6.11.1 Lining In
6.11.2 Applying Tension
6.11.3 Plumbing
6.11.4 Marking Tape Lengths
6.11.5 Reading the Tape
6.11.6 Recording the Distance
6.12 Horizontal Measurements on Sloping Ground
6.13 Slope Measurements
6.14 Sources of Error in Taping
6.14.1 Incorrect Length of Tape
6.14.2 Temperature Other Than Standard
6.14.3 Inconsistent Pull
6.14.4 Sag
6.14.5 Tape Not Horizontal and Tape Off-Line
6.14.6 Improper Plumbing
6.14.7 Faulty Marking
6.14.8 Incorrect Reading or Interpolation
6.14.9 Summary of Effects of Taping Errors
Part III Ï Electronic Distance Measurement
6.17 Introduction
6.18 Propagation of Electromagnetic Energy
6.19 Principles of Electronic Distance Measurement
6.20 Electro-Optical Instruments
6.21 Total Station Instruments
6.22 EDM Instruments Without Reflectors
6.23 Computing Horizontal Lengths From Slope Distances
6.23.1 Reduction of Short Lines by Elevation Differences
6.23.2 Reduction of Short Lines by Zenith or Altitude Angle
6.24 Errors in Electronic Distance Measurement
6.24.1 Personal Errors
6.24.2 Instrumental Errors
6.24.3 Natural Errors
6.25 Using Software
Problems
Bibliography
7 Angles, Azimuths, and Bearings
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Units of Angle Measurement
7.3 Kinds of Horizontal Angles
7.4 Direction of a Line
7.5 Azimuths
7.6 Bearings
7.7 Comparison of Azimuths and Bearings
7.8 Computing Azimuths
7.9 Computing Bearings
7.10 The Compass and The Earth’s Magnetic Field
7.11 Magnetic Declination
7.12 Variations in Magnetic Declination
7.13 Software for Determining Magnetic Declination
7.14 Local Attraction
7.15 Typical Magnetic Declination Problems
7.16 Mistakes
Problems
Bibliography
8 Total Station Instruments; Angle Observations
Part I Ï Total Station Instruments
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Characteristics of Total Station Instruments
8.3 Functions Performed by Total Station Instruments
8.4 Parts of a Total Station Instrument
8.5 Handling and Setting Up a Total Station Instrument
8.6 Servo-Driven and Remotely Operated Total Station Instruments
Part II Ï Angle Observations
8.7 Relationship of Angles and Distances
8.8 Observing Horizontal Angles with Total Station Instruments
8.9 Observing Multiple Horizontal Angles by the Direction Method
8.10 Closing the Horizon
8.11 Observing Deflection Angles
8.12 Observing Azimuths
8.13 Observing Vertical Angles
8.14 Sights and Marks
8.15 Prolonging a Straight Line
8.16 Balancing-In
8.17 Random Traverse
8.18 Total Stations for Determining Elevation Differences
8.19 Adjustment of Total Station Instruments and Their Accessories
8.19.1 Adjustment of Plate-Level Vials
8.19.2 Adjustment of Tripods
8.19.3 Adjustment of Tribrachs
8.19.4 Adjustment of Plummets
8.19.5 Adjustment of Circular Level Bubbles
8.20 Sources of Error in Total Station Work
8.20.1 Instrumental Errors
8.20.2 Natural Errors
8.20.3 Personal Errors
8.21 Propagation of Random Errors in Angle Observations
8.22 Mistakes
Problems
Bibliography
9 Traversing
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Observation of Traverse Angles or Directions
9.2.1 Traversing by Interior Angles
9.2.2 Traversing by Angles to the Right
9.2.3 Traversing by Deflection Angles
9.2.4 Traversing by Azimuths
9.3 Observation of Traverse Lengths
9.4 Selection of Traverse Stations
9.5 Referencing Traverse Stations
9.6 Traverse Field Notes
9.7 Angle Misclosure
9.8 Traversing with Total Station Instruments
9.9 Radial Traversing
9.10 Sources of Error in Traversing
9.11 Mistakes in Traversing
Problems
10 Traverse Computations
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Balancing Angles
10.3 Computation of Preliminary Azimuths or Bearings
10.4 Departures and Latitudes
10.5 Departure and Latitude Closure Conditions
10.6 Traverse Linear Misclosure and Relative Precision
10.7 Traverse Adjustment
10.7.1 Compass (Bowditch) Rule
10.7.2 Least-Squares Method
10.8 Rectangular Coordinates
10.9 Alternative Methods for Making Traverse Computations
10.9.1 Balancing Angles by Adjusting Azimuths or Bearings
10.9.2 Balancing Departures and Latitudes by Adjusting Coordinates
10.10 Inversing
10.11 Computing Final Adjusted Traverse Lengths and Directions
10.12 Coordinate Computations in Boundary Surveys
10.13 Use of Open Traverses
10.14 State Plane Coordinate Systems
10.15 Traverse Computations Using Computers
10.16 Locating Blunders in Traverse Measurements
10.17 Mistakes in Traverse Computations
Problems
Bibliography
11 Coordinate Geometry in Surveying Calculations
11.1 Introduction
11.2 Coordinate Forms of Equations for Lines and Circles
11.3 Perpendicular Distance from a Point to a Line
11.4 Intersection of Two Lines, Both Having Known Directions
11.5 Intersection of a Line with a Circle
11.6 Intersection of Two Circles
11.7 Three-Point Resection
11.8 Two-Dimensional Conformal Coordinate Transformation
11.9 Inaccessible Point Problem
11.10 Three-Dimensional Two-Point Resection
11.11 Software
Problems
Bibliography
12 Area
12.1 Introduction
12.2 Methods of Measuring Area
12.3 Area by Division into Simple Figures
12.4 Area by Offsets from Straight Lines
12.4.1 Regularly Spaced Offsets
12.4.2 Irregularly Spaced Offsets
12.5 Area by Coordinates
12.6 Area by Double Meridian Distance Method
12.7 Area of Parcels with Circular Boundaries
12.8 Partitioning of Lands
12.8.1 Trial and Error Method
12.8.2 Use of Simple Geometric Figures
12.8.3 Coordinate Method
12.9 Area by Measurements from Maps
12.9.1 Area by Counting Coordinate Squares
12.9.2 Area by Scaled Lengths
12.9.3 Area by Digitizing Coordinates
12.9.4 Area by Planimeter
12.10 Software
12.11 Sources of Error in Determining Areas
12.12 Mistakes in Determining Areas
Problems
Bibliography
13 Global Navigation Satellite Systems—Introduction and Principles of Operation
13.1 Introduction
13.2 Overview of GPS
13.3 The GPS Signal
13.4 Reference Coordinate Systems
13.4.1 The Satellite Reference Coordinate System
13.4.2 The Geocentric Coordinate System
13.4.3 The Geodetic Coordinate System
13.4.4 Evolution of WGS84 Reference Frame
13.5 Fundamentals of Satellite Positioning
13.5.1 Code Ranging
13.5.2 Carrier Phase-Shift Measurements
13.6 Errors in Observations
13.6.1 Clock Bias
13.6.2 Refraction
13.6.3 Other Error Sources
13.6.4 Geometry of Observed Satellites
13.7 Differential Positioning
13.8 Kinematic Methods
13.9 Relative Positioning
13.9.1 Single Differencing
13.9.2 Double Differencing
13.9.3 Triple Differencing
13.10 Other Satellite Navigation Systems
13.10.1 The GLONASS Constellation
13.10.2 The Galileo System
13.10.3 The Compass System
13.10.4 Summary
13.11 The Future
Problems
Bibliography
14 Global Navigation Satellite Systems—Static Surveys
14.1 Introduction
14.2 Field Procedures in Satellite Surveys
14.2.1 Static Relative Positioning
14.2.2 Rapid Static Relative Positioning
14.2.3 Pseudokinematic Surveys
14.3 Planning Satellite Surveys
14.3.1 Preliminary Considerations
14.3.2 Selecting the Appropriate Survey Method
14.3.3 Field Reconnaissance
14.3.4 Developing an Observation Scheme
14.3.5 Availability of Reference Stations
14.4 Performing Static Surveys
14.5 Data Processing and Analysis
14.5.1 Specifications for Static Surveys
14.5.2 Analysis of Fixed Baseline Measurements
14.5.3 Analysis of Repeat Baseline Measurements
14.5.4 Analysis of Loop Closures
14.5.5 Baseline Network Adjustment
14.5.6 The Survey Report
14.6 Things to Consider
14.7 Sources of Errors in Satellite Surveys
14.7.1 Instrumental Errors
14.7.2 Natural Errors 378
14.7.3 Personal Errors 378
14.8 Mistakes in Satellite Surveys
Problems
Bibliography
15 Global Navigation Satellite System—Kinematic Surveys
15.1 Introduction
15.2 Planning of Kinematic Surveys
15.3 Initialization
15.4 Equipment Used in Kinematic Surveys
15.5 Methods Used in Kinematic Surveys
15.6 Performing Post-Processed Kinematic Surveys
15.7 Communication in Real-Time Kinematic Surveys
15.8 Real-Time Networks
15.9 Performing Real-Time Kinematic Surveys
15.10 Machine Guidance and Control
15.11 Errors in Kinematic Surveys
15.12 Mistakes in Kinematic Surveys
Problems
Bibliography
16 Adjustments by Least Squares
16.1 Introduction
16.2 Fundamental Condition of Least Squares
16.3 Least-Squares Adjustment by the Observation Equation Method
16.4 Matrix Methods in Least-Squares Adjustment
16.5 Matrix Equations for Precisions of Adjusted Quantities
16.6 Least-Squares Adjustment of Leveling Circuits
16.7 Propagation of Errors
16.8 Least-Squares Adjustment of GNSS Baseline Vectors
16.9 Least-Squares Adjustment of Conventional Horizontal Plane Surveys
16.9.1 Linearizing Nonlinear Equations
16.9.2 The Distance Observation Equation
16.9.3 The Azimuth Observation Equation
16.9.4 The Angle Observation Equation
16.9.5 A Traverse Example Using WOLFPACK
16.10 The Error Ellipse
16.11 Adjustment Procedures
16.12 Other Measures of Precision for Horizontal Stations
16.13 Software
16.14 Conclusions
Problems
Bibliography
17 Mapping Surveys
17.1 Introduction
17.2 Basic Methods for Performing Mapping Surveys
17.3 Map Scale
17.4 Control for Mapping Surveys
17.5 Contours
17.6 Characteristics of Contours
17.7 Method of Locating Contours
17.8 Digital Elevation Models and Automated Contouring Systems
17.9 Basic Field Methods for Locating Topographic Details
17.9.1 Radiation by Total Station
17.9.2 Coordinate Squares or “Grid” Method
17.9.3 Offsets from a Reference Line
17.9.4 Topographic Detailing with GNSS
17.9.5 Laser Scanning
17.10 Planning a Laser-Scanning Survey
17.11 Three-Dimensional Conformal Coordinate Transformation
17.12 Selection of Field Method
17.13 Working with Survey Controllers and Field-to-Finish Software
17.14 Hydrographic Surveys
17.14.1 Equipment for Making Soundings
17.14.2 Locating Soundings
17.14.3 Hydrographic Mapping
17.15 Sources of Error in Mapping Surveys
17.16 Mistakes in Mapping Surveys
Problems
Bibliography
18 Mapping
18.1 Introduction
18.2 Availability of Maps and Related Information
18.3 National Mapping Program
18.4 Accuracy Standards for Mapping
18.5 Manual and Computer-Aided Drafting Procedures
18.6 Map Design
18.7 Map Layout
18.8 Basic Map Plotting Procedures
18.8.1 Manually Plotting by Coordinates
18.8.2 Plotting Using CADD
18.9 Contour Interval
18.10 Plotting Contours
18.11 Lettering
18.12 Cartographic Map Elements
18.13 Drafting Materials
18.14 Automated Mapping and Computer-Aided Drafting Systems
18.15 Migrating Maps between Software Packages
18.16 Impacts of Modern Land and Geographic Information Systems on Mapping
18.17 Sources of Error in Mapping
18.18 Mistakes in Mapping
Problems
Bibliography
19 Control Surveys and Geodetic Reductions
19.1 Introduction
19.2 The Ellipsoid and Geoid
19.3 The Conventional Terrestrial Pole
19.4 Geodetic Position and Ellipsoidal Radii of Curvature
19.5 Geoid Undulation and Deflection of the Vertical
19.6 U.S. Reference Frames
19.6.1 North American Horizontal Datum of 1927 (NAD27)
19.6.2 North American Horizontal Datum of 1983 (NAD83)
19.6.3 Later Versions of NAD83
19.6.4 National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929 (NGVD29)
19.6.5 North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (NAVD88)
19.6.6 Future Reference Frames in the United States
19.7 Transforming Coordinates between Reference Frames
19.7.1 Helmert Transformation and Its Variant
19.7.2 The Two plus One Approach
19.8 Accuracy Standards and Specifications for Control Surveys
19.9 The National Spatial Reference System
19.10 Hierarchy of the National Horizontal Control Network
19.11 Hierarchy of the National Vertical Control Network
19.12 Control Point Descriptions
19.13 Field Procedures for Conventional Horizontal Control Surveys
19.13.1 Triangulation
19.13.2 Precise Traverse
19.13.3 Trilateration
19.13.4 Combined Networks
19.14 Field Procedures for Vertical-Control Surveys
19.15 Reduction of Field Observations to Their Geodetic Values
19.15.1 Reduction of Distance Observations Using Elevations
19.15.2 Reduction of Distance Observations Using Vertical Angles
19.15.3 Reduction of Directions and Angles
19.15.4 Leveling and Orthometric Heights
19.16 Geodetic Position Computations
19.16.1 Direct Geodetic Problem
19.16.2 Inverse Geodetic Problem
19.17 The Local Geodetic Coordinate System
19.18 Three-Dimensional Coordinate Computations
19.19 Software
Problems
Bibliography
20 State Plane Coordinates and Other Map Projections
20.1 Introduction
20.2 Projections Used In State Plane Coordinate Systems
20.3 Lambert Conformal Conic Projection
20.4 Transverse Mercator Projection
20.5 State Plane Coordinates in NAD27 and NAD83
20.6 Computing SPCS83 Coordinates in the Lambert Conformal Conic System
20.6.1 Zone Constants
20.6.2 The Direct Problem
20.6.3 The Inverse Problem
20.7 Computing SPCS83 Coordinates in the Transverse Mercator System
20.7.1 Zone Constants
20.7.2 The Direct Problem
20.7.2 The Inverse Problem
20.8 Reduction of Distances and Angles to State Plane Coordinate Grids
20.8.1 Grid Reduction of Distances
20.8.2 Grid Reduction of Azimuths and Angles
20.9 Computing State Plane Coordinates of Traverse Stations
20.10 Surveys Extending from One Zone to Another
20.11 The Universal Transverse Mercator Projection
20.12 Other Map Projections
20.12.1 Oblique Stereographic Map Projection
20.12.2 Oblique Mercator Map Projection
20.13 Map Projection Software
Problems
Bibliography
21 Boundary Surveys
21.1 Introduction
21.2 Categories of Land Surveys
21.3 Historical Perspectives
21.4 Property Description by Metes and Bounds
21.5 Property Description by Block and Lot System
21.6 Property Description by Coordinates
21.7 Retracement Surveys
21.8 Subdivision Surveys
21.9 Partitioning Land
21.10 Registration of Title
21.11 Adverse Possession and Easements
21.12 Condominium Surveys
21.13 Geographic and Land Information Systems
21.14 Sources of Error in Boundary Surveys
21.15 Mistakes
Problems
Bibliography
22 Surveys of the Public Lands
22.1 Introduction
22.2 Instructions For Surveys Of The Public Lands
22.3 Initial Point
22.4 Principal Meridian
22.5 Baseline
22.6 Standard Parallels (Correction Lines)
22.7 Guide Meridians
22.8 Township Exteriors, Meridional (Range) Lines, and Latitudinal (Township) Lines
22.9 Designation of Townships
22.10 Subdivision of a Quadrangle into Townships
22.11 Subdivision of a Township into Sections
22.12 Subdivision of Sections
22.13 Fractional Sections
22.14 Notes
22.15 Outline of Subdivision Steps
22.16 Marking Corners
22.17 Witness Corners
22.18 Meander Corners
22.19 Lost and Obliterated Corners
22.20 Accuracy of Public Lands Surveys
22.21 Descriptions by Township Section and Smaller Subdivision
22.22 BLM Land Information System
22.23 Sources of Error
22.24 Mistakes
Problems
Bibliography
23 Construction Surveys
23.1 Introduction
23.2 Specialized Equipment for Construction Surveys
23.2.1 Visible Laser-Beam Instruments
23.2.2 Reflectorless Total Stations
23.2.3 Laser Scanners
23.3 Horizontal and Vertical Control
23.4 Staking Out a Pipeline
23.5 Staking Pipeline Grades
23.6 Staking Out a Building
23.7 Staking Out Highways
23.8 Other Construction Surveys
23.9 Construction Surveys Using Total Station Instruments
23.10 Construction Surveys Using GNSS Equipment
23.11 Machine Guidance and Control
23.12 As-Built Surveys with Laser Scanning
23.13 Sources of Error in Construction Surveys
23.14 Mistakes
Problems
Bibliography
24 Horizontal Curves
24.1 Introduction
24.2 Degree of Circular Curve
24.3 Definitions and Derivation of Circular Curve Formulas
24.4 Circular Curve Stationing
24.5 General Procedure of Circular Curve Layout by Deflection Angles
24.6 Computing Deflection Angles and Chords
24.7 Notes for Circular Curve Layout by Deflection Angles and Incremental Chords
24.8 Detailed Procedures for Circular Curve Layout by Deflection Angles and Incremental Chords
24.9 Setups on Curve
24.10 Metric Circular Curves by Deflection Angles and Incremental Chords
24.11 Circular Curve Layout by Deflection Angles and Total Chords
24.12 Computation of Coordinates on a Circular Curve
24.13 Circular Curve Layout by Coordinates
24.14 Curve Stakeout Using GNSS Receivers and Robotic Total Stations
24.15 Circular Curve Layout by Offsets
24.16 Special Circular Curve Problems
24.16.1 Passing a Circular Curve through a Fixed Point
24.16.2 Intersection of a Circular Curve and a Straight Line
24.16.3 Intersection of Two Circular Curves
24.17 Compound and Reverse Curves
24.18 Sight Distance on Horizontal Curves
24.19 Spirals
24.19.1 Spiral Geometry
24.19.2 Spiral Calculation and Layout
24.20 Computation of “As-Built” Circular Alignments
24.21 Sources of Error in Laying Out Circular Curves
24.22 Mistakes
Problems
Bibliography
25 Vertical Curves
25.1 Introduction
25.2 General Equation of a Vertical Parabolic Curve
25.3 Equation of an Equal Tangent Vertical Parabolic Curve
25.4 High or Low Point on a Vertical Curve
25.5 Vertical Curve Computations Using the Tangent Offset Equation
25.5.1 Example Computations Using the English System of Units
25.5.2 Example Computations Using the Metric System
25.6 Equal Tangent Property of a Parabola
25.7 Curve Computations by Proportion
25.8 Staking a Vertical Parabolic Curve
25.9 Machine Control in Grading Operations
25.10 Computations for an Unequal Tangent Vertical Curve
25.11 Designing a Curve to Pass through a Fixed Point
25.12 Sight Distance
25.13 Sources of Error in Laying Out Vertical Curves
25.14 Mistakes
Problems
Bibliography
26 Volumes
26.1 Introduction
26.2 Methods of Volume Measurement
26.3 The Cross-Section Method
26.4 Types of Cross Sections
26.5 Average End Area Formula
26.6 Determining End Areas
26.6.1 End Areas by Simple Figures
26.6.2 End Areas by Coordinates
26.7 Computing Slope Intercepts
26.8 Prismoidal Formula
26.9 Volume Computations
26.10 Unit-Area or Borrow-Pit Method
26.11 Contour-Area Method
26.12 Measuring Volumes of Water Discharge
26.13 Software
26.14 Sources of Error in Determining Volumes
26.15 Mistakes
Problems
Bibliography
27 Photogrammetry
27.1 Introduction
27.2 Uses of Photogrammetry
27.3 Aerial Cameras
27.4 Types of Aerial Photographs
27.5 Vertical Aerial Photographs
27.6 Scale of a Vertical Photograph
27.7 Ground Coordinates from a Single Vertical Photograph
27.8 Relief Displacement on a Vertical Photograph
27.9 Flying Height of a Vertical Photograph
27.10 Stereoscopic Parallax
27.11 Stereoscopic Viewing
27.12 Stereoscopic Measurement of Parallax
27.13 Analytical Photogrammetry
27.14 Stereoscopic Plotting Instruments
27.14.1 Basic Concepts in Stereoplotters
27.14.2 Analytical Stereoplotters
27.14.3 Softcopy Stereoplotters
27.15 Orthophotos
27.16 Ground Control for Photogrammetry
27.17 Flight Planning
27.18 Airborne Laser-Mapping Systems
27.19 Remote Sensing
27.20 Software
27.21 Sources of Error in Photogrammetry
27.22 Mistakes
Problems
Bibliography
28 Introduction to Geographic Information Systems
28.1 Introduction
28.2 Land Information Systems
28.3 GIS Data Sources and Classifications
28.4 Spatial Data
28.4.1 Simple Spatial Objects
28.4.2 Vector and Raster Formats
28.4.3 Topology
28.5 Nonspatial Data
28.6 Data Format Conversions
28.6.1 Vector-to-Raster Conversion
28.6.2 Raster-to-Vector Conversion
28.7 Creating GIS Databases
28.7.1 Generating Digital Data from Field Surveys
28.7.2 Digitizing from Aerial Photos with Stereoplotters
28.7.3 Digitizing Existing Graphic Materials
28.7.4 Keyboard Entry
28.7.5 Existing Digital Data Sets
28.7.6 Scanning
28.8 Metadata
28.9 GIS Analytical Functions
28.9.1 Proximity Analysis
28.9.2 Boundary Operations
28.9.3 Spatial Joins
28.9.4 Logical Operations
28.9.5 Other GIS Functions
28.10 GIS Applications
28.11 Data Sources
Problems
Bibliography
A Tape Correction Problems
A.1 Correcting Systematic Errors in Taping
B Example Noteforms
C Astronomical Observations
C.1 Introduction
C.2 Overview of Usual Procedures for Astronomical Azimuth Determination
C.3 Ephemerides
C.4 Definitions
C.5 Time
C.6 Timing Observations
C.7 Computations for Azimuth from Polaris Observations by the Hour Angle Method
C.8 Azimuth from Solar Observations
C.9 Importance of Precise Leveling
D Using the Worksheets on the Companion Disk
D.1 Introduction
D.2 Using the Files
D.3 Worksheets as an Aid in Learning
E Introduction to Matrices
E.1 Introduction
E.2 Definition of a Matrix
E.3 The Dimensions of a Marix
E.4 The Transpose of a Matrix
E.5 Matrix Addition
E.6 Matrix Multiplication
E.7 Matrix Inverse
F U.S. State Plane Coordinate System Defining Parameters
F.1 Introduction
F.2 Defining Parameters for States Using the Lambert Conformal Conic Map Projection
F.3 Defining Parameters for States Using the Transverse Mercator Map Projection
G Answers to Selected Problems
Index