Synopses & Reviews
The techniques described in this book provide an alternative method to understanding cellular biological structures and processes. Molecular genetic methods mainly analyse single molecules or very small cellular parts, which does not necessarily enhance our understanding of the fundamental cellular processes. However, using techniques such as atomic force or infrared microscopy, neutron reflection, stopped-flow cytometry, laser microscopy, or biosensoric-based electronics, it is possible to study cells and biological systems in their entirety. Physiological processes of cells, such as movement, development, plasticity, regeneration and communication, can be visualized using the high precision biophysical techniques described here.
In spite of tremendous scientific progress over the past years, cell biologists do not yet understand the fundamental processes that determine the life cy- cle of a cell. Such are: cell movement and cell spreading, cell division, cell communication, cell signaling, cell regeneration and cell death. Biochemistry has enabled us to recognize and to isolate an overwhelming number of new proteins. In vitro assays and the reinjection of proteins into cells and tissues have provided insights into molecular functions and cellular mechanisms. The renaissance of the genetic approach by applying restriction enzymes and vectors, PCR and antisense technology has enabled us to overexpress certain cellular products, to make altered constructs of cell components or to create "knock-out" mutants that entirely lack the factor of interest. Amazingly en- ough, all these molecular toys have led to a stream of information but not, in a comparable degree, to a better understanding. Has the puzzle become too complex to get solved; or are the windows too small that we are looking through? As an attempt to answer both questions, the aim of the present mono- graph Modern Optics, Electronics and High Precision Techniques in Cell Biol- ogy is first to provide cell and molecular biologists with a whole new scope of easily applicable techniques including brand-new optical, biophysical, physicochemical and biosensoric devices. Secondly, these newly developed techniques allow us to look at cells and biological systems as a whole.
Fundamental cellular processes such as movement, development or communication can be analysed with the high precision biophysical techniques described in this work.
Table of Contents
Preface - 1 Atomic Force Microscopy Provides Molecular Details of Cell Surfaces, Cora-Ann Schoenenberger, Daniel J. Müller and Andreas Engel. - 2 Basic Principles and Applications of Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy Rolf Borlinghaus and Bernhard Gröbler. - 3 Visualization of Neuronal Form and Function in Brain Slices by Infrared Videomicroscopy, Hans-Ulrich Dodt and Walter Zieglgänsberger. - 4 Time-Resolved Imaging of Membrane Potentials and Cytoplasmic Ions at the Cellular Level with a 5050 Fiber Array Photodiode Camera, S.Hosoi, H. Tsuchiya, M. Takahashi, M. Kashiwasake-Jibu, K. Sakatami and T. Hayakawa. - 5 Micromanipulation of Macromolecules: How to Measure the Stiffness of Single Microtubules, Harald Felgner, Rainer Frank and Manfred Schliwa. - 6 Dynamics of Single Protein Polymers Visualized by Fluorescence Microscopy, Josef Käs, Jochen Guck and David Humphrey. - 7 The Interaction of Proteins with Membrane Surfaces at Molecular Resolution: The Neutron Reflection Method, Thomas M. Bayerl and Andreas P. Maierhofer. - 8 The Study of Fast Reactions by the Stopped-Flow Method, Wolfgang H. Goldmann, Zeno Guttenberg, Robert M. Ezzel and Gerhard Isenberg. - 9 Biomolecular Interactions Analysis (BIA Technology). A Universal Biosensor-Based Technology for Biochemical Research and Development, Francis Markey and Franz Schindler. - 10 Measuring Cellular Locomotion Forces with Micro-Machined Substrates, Catherine G. Galbraith and Michael P. Sheetz. - 11 Viscoelasticity, Rheology and Molecular Conformational Dynamics of Entangled and Cross-Linked Actin Networks, Erich Sackmann. Index