Synopses & Reviews
Ecology is capturing the popular imagination like never before, with issues such as climate change, species extinctions, and habitat destruction becoming ever more prominent. At the same time, the science of ecology has advanced dramatically, growing in mathematical and theoretical sophistication. Here, two leading experts present the fundamental quantitative principles of ecology in an accessible yet rigorous way, introducing students to the most basic of all ecological subjects, the structure and dynamics of populations.
John Vandermeer and Deborah Goldberg show that populations are more than simply collections of individuals. Complex variables such as distribution and territory for expanding groups come into play when mathematical models are applied. Vandermeer and Goldberg build these models from the ground up, from first principles, using a broad range of empirical examples, from animals and viruses to plants and humans. They address a host of exciting topics along the way, including age-structured populations, spatially distributed populations, and metapopulations.
This second edition of Population Ecology is fully updated and expanded, with additional exercises in virtually every chapter, making it the most up-to-date and comprehensive textbook of its kind.
- Provides an accessible mathematical foundation for the latest advances in ecology
- Features numerous exercises and examples throughout
- Introduces students to the key literature in the field
- The essential textbook for advanced undergraduates and graduate students
- An online illustration package is available to professors
Review
Praise for first edition:"Superbly crafted."--Choice
Review
Praise for first edition:"Vandermeer and Goldberg do an admirable job of explaining the ecological meaning and assumptions behind all of the mathematical results presented. They include many figures that illustrate their points clearly and these are accompanied with detailed verbal explanations."--Helen M. Regan, Ecology
Review
"As population ecology continues to grow and develop as a discipline, this book will serve as a useful text for undergraduate courses in population ecology or quantitative techniques, and will also serve as a handy resource for professionals."--Tyler M. Harms, Journal of Wildlife Management
About the Author
John H. Vandermeer is the Asa Gray Distinguished University Professor of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology at the University of Michigan. Deborah E. Goldberg is the Elzada U. Clover Collegiate Professor of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology at the University of Michigan.
Table of Contents
List of Figures xi
List of Tables xvii
Preface xix
ONE Elementary Population Dynamics 1
Density Independence: The Exponential Equation 2
Density Dependence 9
The Logistic Equation 13
The Yield-Density Relationship 17
Density Dependence and Mortality: Thinning Laws 22
Density Dependence in Discrete Time Models 28
TWO Projection Matrices: Structured Models 30
Elementary Age-Structured Population Projection Matrices 30
Non-Age Structure: Stage Projection Matrices 39
Eigenvectors, Reproductive Value, Sensitivity, and Elasticity 45
Density Dependence in Structured Populations 48
Density Dependence in a Simple Age-Structured Model 48
Density Dependence in Size-Distributed Populations 50
Density Dependence in a Stage-Structured Model 56
Appendix: Basic Matrix Manipulations 57
Matrix Multiplication 57
Matrix Addition and Subtraction 58
The Identity Matrix 59
The Determinant of a Matrix 59
THREE Applications of Simple Population Models 62
Life History Analysis 63
Investment in Survivorship versus Reproduction: The r-K Continuum 64
The Cost of Reproduction 66
Optimal Reproductive Schedules 67
Applications of Population Projection Matrices 73
The Dall's Mountain Sheep: A Static Life Table 73
Palo de Mayo: A Dynamic Life Table 74
Population Viability Analysis 76
Demography of Invasive and Native Plant Populations 78
FOUR A Closer Look at the "Dynamics" in Population Dynamics 81
Intuitive Ideas of Equilibrium and Stability 83
Eigenvalues: A Key Concept in Dynamic Analysis 92
Basic Concepts of Equilibrium and Stability in One-Dimensional Maps 97
The One-Dimensional Map 98
Stability and Equilibrium in the Logistic Map 106
Basins of Attraction in the Logistic Map 108
Structural Stability 110
Bifurcation Diagrams 116
Concluding Remarks 122
FIVE Patterns and Dynamics in Space 126
The Poisson Distribution 129
Point Pattern Analysis and the Question of Scale 134
Mechanisms of Spatial Pattern Formation: Principles of Reaction/Diffusion 137
Mechanisms of Spatial Pattern Formation: Biological Causes 141
Metapopulations 142
Assumptions of Metapopulation Models 146
The Rescue Effect and Propagule Rain 148
Appendix: Data for Exercises 5.2, 5.3, and 5.4 150
SIX Predator-Prey (Consumer-Resource) Interactions 152
Predator-Prey Interactions: First Principles 153
Density Dependence 158
Functional Response 161
Functional Response and Density Dependence Together 166
Paradoxes in Applications of Predator-Prey Theory 168
Predator-Prey Dynamics: A Graphical Approach 170
Predator-Prey Interactions in Discrete Time 176
SEVEN Disease Ecology 187
Direct Disease Transmission 188
Indirect Transmission 194
EIGHT Competition 198
Competition: First Principles 199
Isocline Analysis of the Lotka-Volterra Competition Equations 203
Niches and Competitive Coexistence and Exclusion 209
The Competitive Production Principle: Applications of Competition Theory to Agriculture 211
Resource Competition 212
NINE Facilitation and Mutualism 225
TEN What This Book Was About 239
Glossary 243
References 247
Index 255