Synopses & Reviews
The contributions in this book deal with basic research in psychoneuroimmunology, dysfunctions of the immune system in psychiatric disorders and the possible role of viruses in psychoneuroimmunological processes. Growing knowledge about the reciprocal relationship between psychic processes and the immune system implicates more interest of clinical psychiatrists in this field because immunological dysfunction is found in depression and schizophrenia, but also in other psychiatric syndromes like anxiety disorders. The authors of the chapters, all active researchers in the field, describe the results of their scientific work and the actual state of the art. The interdisciplinary character of this book is outlined by the broad international and disciplinary range of the authors which represent a spectrum from basic scientists like pharmacologists and immunologists up to clinical psychiatrists and neurologists. New findings regarding the role of the immune system in sleep and in headache are discussed. Special emphasis is laid on methodological pitfalls in immunological studies of psychiatric disorders. Perspectives for future therapeutical strategies are outlined.
This volume contains the contributions to the "3rd Expert Meeting in Psychoneuroimmunology," held in Munich, Germany in autumn 1997. Clinical psychiatrists, neuroscientists and researchers in basic immuno- logy from Europe and the USA gather together annually at this new tra- ditional meeting to discuss new findings and trends in the relationship between psychiatric disorders and the immune system. Pinpointed at the Munich meeting in particular were the possible influence of viral infec- tions on psychiatric disorders, especially schizophrenia, and the possible pathophysiological mechanisms affecting psychiatric disorders. These mechanisms include viral-induced alteration, cytokine production, and the role of the HLA system. One chapter is devoted to the influence of viral infections during pregnancy; another to the first results of experimental therapy especial- ly regarding the immune system. The immunological aspects not only of schizophrenia but also of depression, anxiety disorders, sleep and headache were also discussed at the meeting, and two further chapters cover methodological aspects related to clinical and experimental pitfalls in psychoneuroimmunology. The psychoneuroimmunology of psychiatric disorders is a rapidly expanding field, and research is increasing on the therapeutic aspects. This is reflected by one of the main themes of the "4th Expert Meeting in Psychoneuroimmunology," jointly held in autumn 1998 in Bethesda, Maryland, USA, with the Stanley Foundation Meeting in Neurovirology, devoted to therapeutic strategies deriving from psychoneuroimmunolo- gical findings. The "5th Expert Meeting in Psychoneuroimmunology" will be held in 1999 in Innsbruck, Austria.
Table of Contents
Viruses and the immune system in psychiatric disorders: Immunogenetic aspects of viral or other environmental factors in schizophrenia (R. Wank); The use of substraction libraries for the identification of RNA species upregulated in the brains of individuals with schizophrenia (R. H. Yolken, N. Johnstone, F. Leister, E. F. Torrey, Stanley Neuropathology Consortium); Cerebrospinal fluid filtration in a case of schizophrenia related to "subclinical" Borna disease virus encephalitis (K. Bechter, S. Herzog, V. Schreiner, K.-H. Wollinsky, R. Schüttler), Borna disease virus in patients with psychiatric disorders or fibromyalgia - demonstration of antibodies is highly dependent on the detection method (Ar. Batra, A. Batra, K. Schott, L. Stitz).- Serotonergic system, depression, and immune System: Interaction of the serotonergic and the immune systems: 5HT-Moduline (B. Grimaldi, C. Sibella-Arguelles, A. Bonnin, M. P. Fillion, O. Massot, J. C. Rousselle, N. Prudhomme, G. Fillion), The inflammatory response system activation model of major depression (M. Maes).- Schizophrenia and the immune system: Methodological concerns in the study of the immune system in schizophrenia (D. P. van Kammen, C. G. McAllister-Sistilli, M. E. Kelley, J. A. Gurklis, J. K. Yao); Psychoimmunological alterations in schizophrenia: how do confounding variables influence the findings? (M. Rothermund, V. Arolt, M. Peters, H. Kirchner); On the myth of antibrain antibodies in schizophrenia - a critical overview (K. Schott, A. Batra, E. Richartz, M. Sarkar, M. Bartels, G. Buchkremer); Schizophrenia: the teratogenic antibody hypothesis (P. Wright, P. Laing, P. T. Donaldson, R. M. Murray); A preliminary analysis investigating immune activation in schizophrenia (M. H. Rapaport, M. P. Caliguiri, J. B. Lohr, D. Dolnak, S. Chavez, C. Kulesh, T. Hahn); Measurement of neopterin, kynurenine and tryptophan in sera of schizophrenic patients (B. Sperner-Unterweger, C. Miller, B. Holzner, B. Widner, W. W. Fleischhacker, D. Fuchs); Levels of soluble adhesion molecules in schizophrenia: relation to psychopathology (M. J. Schwarz, M. Riedel, M. Ackenheil, N. Müller).- Sleep, anxiety, headache, and immunity: The role of interferon-alpha in the regulation of sleep (J. Born, E. Späth-Schwalbe); Immunological alterations in patients suffering from bulimia nervosa (DSM-IV 307.51) vs anxiety disorders (DSM-IV 300.01, 300.21, 309.81, 300.02) (G. Wieselmann, G. Herzog, M. Schönauer-Ceipek, U. Demel, K. Penkner, G. Tilz, H. G. Zapotoczky); T cell subsets and expression of integrins in peripheral blood of patients with migraine and chronic tension type headache (M. Empl, P. Sostak, M. Breckner, M. Riedel, N. Müller, R. Gruber, S. Förderreuther, A. Straube)