Synopses & Reviews
Radar technology is increasingly being used to monitor the environment. This monograph provides a review of polarimetric radar techniques for remote sensing. The first four chapters cover the basics of mathematical, statistical modelling as well as physical modelling based on radiowave scattering theory. The subsequent eight chapters summarize applications of polarimetric radar monitoring for various types of earth environments, including vegetation and oceans. The last two chapters provide a summary of Western as well as former Soviet Union knowledge and the outlook. This monograph is of value to students, scientists and engineers involved in remote sensing development and applications in particular for environmental monitoring.
Table of Contents
Preface. Acknowledgements.
Part 1: Introduction. A. Scope of the subject.
B. Description of the research program.
C. Outline of the monograph.
Part 2: An Introduction to Mathematical and Physical Modelling of Microwave Scattering and Polarimetric Remote Sensing. 1. Introduction to Inverse Radar Scattering Problems. 1.1. Theoretical aspects.
1.2. Pattern recognition and evaluation parameters.
1.3. Conditions for implementing inverse scattering techniques.
1.4. Polarimetric radar.
2. Description of Remote Sensing by Radar Polarimetry. 2.1. Physical process of encoding/decoding of polarimetric data.
2.2. Physical realization of a polarimetric radar.
2.3. Methods of measurements of polarimetric data.
2.4. Radar techniques for polarimetric remote sensing.
3. Physical and Mathematical Modelling. 3.1. Physical modelling.
3.2. Mathematical modelling.
4. Summary of Available Scattering Methods. 4.1. Introduction.
4.2. Transport theory: radiative transfer equation.
Part 3: Diagnostics of the Earth s Environment Using Polarimetric Radar Monitoring: Formulation and Potential Applications. 5. Basic Mathematical Modelling for Random Environments. 5.1. Introduction.
5.2. Space spectrum method.
5.3. Solutions.
5.4. Conclusions and applications.
6. Review of Vegetation Models. 6.1. Introduction.
6.2. Biometrical characteristics of vegetation.
6.3. Electrophysical characteristics of vegetation.
6.4. Electrodynamic model of vegetation.
6.5. Determination of biometrical characteristics of vegetation from radar remote sensing data.
6.6. Classification of vegetation.
6.7. Conclusions and applications.
7. Electrodynamic and Physical Characteristics of Earth Surfaces. 7.1. Introduction.
7.2. Complex permittivity.
7.3. Dielectric and physical parameters.
7.4. Interrelations between dielectric and physical characteristics.
7.5. Conclusions and applications.
8. Reflection of Electromagnetic Waves from Non-Uniform Layered Structures. 8.1. Introduction
8.2. Deterministic approach.
8.3. Stochastic case of three layers with flat boundaries.
8.4. Conclusions and applications.
9. Radiowave Reflection from Structures with Internal Ruptures. 9.1. Introduction.
9.2. Reflection from a symmetrical wedge-shaped fracture.
9.3. Reflection from an asymmetric wedge-shaped fracture.
9.4. Reflection from a pit with spherical form.
9.5. Reflection from a rectangular pit with finite depth.
9.6. Antenna pattern and fracture filling effects.
9.7. Combined model.
9.8. Conclusions and applications.
10. Scattering of Waves by a Layer with a Rough Boundary. 10.1. Introduction.
10.2. Initial equations and solutions.
10.3. Model parameters of an ensemble of co-directional cylinders.
10.4. Conclusions and applications.
11. Polarimetric Methods for Measuring Permittivity Characteristics of the Earth's Surface. 11.1. Introduction.
11.2. Determination of the complex permittivity. 11.3. The KLL sphere.
11.4. Conclusions and applications.
12. Implementing Solutions to Inverse Scattering Problems: Signal Processing and Applications. 12.1. Introduction.
12.2. Radar imaging.
12.3. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR).
12.4. Radar altimeter.
12.5. Tropospheric-scatter radar.
12.6. Atmospheric monitoring with polarimetry.
Part 4: Concluding Remarks. 13. Review of Potential Applications of Radar Polarimetry. 13.1. Introduction.
13.2. Results of polarimetric remote sensing.
13.3. Comparison-review of the inverse scattering models analyzed.
14. Historical Development of Radar Polarimetry in Russia. 14.1. Introduction.
14.2. General theory of polarization of radiowaves.
14.3. The polarization theory of the radar targets.
14.4. Polarization selection.
14.5. Development of algorithms for the reception of polarized signals.
14.6.Polarization modulation.
14.7. The polarization analysis of scattered and reflected radiowaves for studying the environment.
14.8. Applications of radar-polarimetry in remote sensing systems. Appendix A. Appendix B. Appendix C. Appendix D. Appendix E. Appendix F. References.