*Selections new to this edition are indicated with an asterisk
Preface to the 2nd Edition
For the Student: An Introduction to the Annotations
Chapter 1 What is Philosophy?
Ann Baker: Philosophical Thinking
Bertrand Russell: The Value of Philosophy
Chapter 2 Knowledge and Skepticism
Do We Have Knowledge of the External World?
René Descartes: From Meditations on First Philosophy
John Locke: From An Essay Concerning Human Understanding
George Berkeley: From Three Dialogues Between Hylas and Philonous
Thomas Reid: Direct Realism, from Essays on the Intellectual Powers of Man
Laurence BonJour: Knowledge of the External World, from Epistemology: Classic Problems and Contemporary Responses
Sextus Empiricus: From Outlines of Pyrrhonism*
Concluding Dialogue on the External World*
Is Induction Justified?
David Hume: Skeptical Doubts Concerning the Operations of the Understanding, from An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding
Wesley Salmon: The Problem of Induction, from The Foundations of Scientific Inference
A. C. Ewing: The “A Priori” and the Empirical, from The Fundamental Questions of Philosophy
Concluding Dialogue on the Problem of Induction*
Chapter 3 Minds and Bodies
Are Minds and Mental States Distinct from Bodies and Material States?
John Foster: A Defense of Dualism
J. J. C. Smart: Sensations and Brain Processes
Jerry Fodor: The Mind-Body Problem
Are Intentional Mental States Analogous to the States of a Computer?
A. M. Turing: Computing Machinery and Intelligence
John R. Searle: Is the Brain’s Mind a Computer Program?
Jerry Fodor: Searle on What Only Brains Can Do
John R. Searle: Author’s Response
Can Materialism Account for Qualitative Consciousness?
Thomas Nagel: What Is It Like to Be a Bat?
Frank Jackson: What Mary Didn’t Know
Laurence BonJour: What Is It Like to Be a Human (Instead of a Bat)?
David Lewis: Knowing What It’s Like
David J. Chalmers: The Puzzle of Conscious Experience
Concluding Dialogue on the Mind-Body Problem*
Chapter 4 Personal Identity and Free Will
What is Required for Personal Identity?
John Locke: Personal Identity
Thomas Reid: Of Mr. Locke’s Account of Personal Identity
Bernard Williams: The Self and the Future
Derek Parfit: Personal Identity
Concluding Dialogue on Personal Identity *
Are Human Actions Genuinely Free?
Robert Blatchford: A Defense of Hard Determinism, from Not Guilty: A Defense of the Bottom Dog
David Hume: Of Liberty and Necessity
W. T. Stace: A Compatibalist Account of Free Will, from Religion and the Modern Mind
Paul Edwards: Hard and Soft Determinism
Harry Frankfurt: Freedom of the Will and the Concept of a Person*
C. A. Campbell: In Defense of Free Will
Robert Nozick: Choice and Indeterminism, from Philosophical Explanations
Robert Kane: Free Will and Modern Science, from A Contemporary Introduction to Free Will*
Back to Hard Determinism?
Galen Strawson: Free Will
Concluding Dialogue on Free Will*
Chapter 5 Morality and Moral Problems
What Is the Best Theory of Morality: Utilitarianism, Deontological Views, or Virtue Ethics?
Utilitarianism: Morality Depends on Consequences
Jeremy Bentham: From An Introduction to Principles of Morals and Legislation
John Stuart Mill: From Utilitarianism
J. J. C. Smart: Extreme and Restricted Utilitarianism
Bernard Williams: A Critique of Utilitarianism
Peter Singer: Famine, Affluence, and Morality*
Deontological Views: Morality Depends on Duties and Rights
Immanuel Kant: From Foundations of the Metaphysics of Morals
Onora O’Neill: The Moral Perplexities of Famine Relief
David T. Ozar: Rights: What They Are and Where They Come From
Judith Jarvis Thomson: A Defense of Abortion
Virtue Ethics: Morality Depends on Character Traits
Aristotle: From The Nichomachean Ethics
Rosalind Hursthouse: Normative Virtue Ethics
Rosalind Hursthouse: Virtue Theory and Abortion*
Challenges to Morality: Relativism and Egoism
James Rachels: The Challenge of Cultural Relativism
Joel Feinberg: Psychological Egoism
Plato: Are We Better Off Behaving Morally or Immorally?
Concluding Dialogue on Morality and Moral Problems*
Chapter 6 The Legitimacy of Government and The Nature of Justice
What Is the Justification for Government?
Thomas Hobbes: The Social Contract, from Leviathan
John Locke: The Social Contract, from Second Treatise of Government
David Hume: Of the Original Contract
What Is Social Justice?
Robert Nozick: The Entitlement Theory of Justice, from Anarchy, State, and Utopia
John Rawls: Justice as Fairness, from A Theory of Justice
Robert Nozick: A Critique of Rawls, from Anarchy, State, and Utopia
Thomas M. Scanlon: Nozick on Rights, Liberty, and Property
Concluding Dialogue on Government and Justice*
Chapter 7 God and Faith
Does God Exist?
The Cosmological Argument
St. Thomas Aquinas: The Five Ways, from Summa Theologica
Samuel Clarke: The Cosmological Argument, from A Demonstration of the Being and Attributes of God
David Hume: Problems with the Cosmological Argument, from Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion
The Argument from Design
William Paley: The Argument from Design, from Natural Theology
Stephen Jay Gould: The Panda’s Thumb
David Hume: Problems with the Argument from Design, from Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion
Antony Flew: Critique of the Global Argument from Design, from God: A Critical Inquiry
The Ontological Argument
St. Anselm: The Ontological Argument, from Proslogion*
René Descartes: The Ontological Argument
Immanuel Kant: The Impossibility of an Ontological Proof of the Existence of God
An Argument Against the Existence of God: The Problem of Evil
David Hume: The Problem of Evil, from Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion
J. L. Mackie: Evil and Omnipotence
John Hick: The Problem of Evil, from Philosophy of Religion
Must We Have Reasons to Believe in God?
Walter Kaufmann: Pascal’s Wager, from Critique of Religion and Philosophy
William James: The Will to Believe
Concluding Dialogue on God and Faith*
Chapter 8 Philosophy and The Good Life
Epictetus: from the Manual
Robert Nozick: The Experience Machine
Thomas Nagel: The Absurd
Susan Wolf: Happiness and Meaning: Two Aspects of the Good Life
Concluding Dialogue on the Good Life*