1
Types of Structures and
Loads 3
1.1 Introduction 3
1.2 Classification of Structures 4
1.3 Loads 9
1.4 Structural Design 28
Problems 29
Chapter Review 33
2
Analysis of Statically Determinate
Structures 35
2.1 Idealized Structure 35
2.2 Load Path 48
2.3 Principle of Superposition 49
2.4 Equations of Equilibrium 50
2.5 Determinacy and Stability 51
2.6 Application of the Equations of
Equilibrium 58
Fundamental Problems 68
Problems 70
Project Problem 79
Chapter Review 80
3
Analysis of Statically
Determinate Trusses 83
3.1 Common Types of Trusses 83
3.2 Classification of Coplanar Trusses 89
3.3 The Method of Joints 96
3.4 Zero-Force Members 100
3.5 The Method of Sections 102
3.6 Compound Trusses 108
3.7 Complex Trusses 112
3.8 Space Trusses 116
Fundamental Problems 123
Problems 125
Project Problem 135
Chapter Review 136
4
Internal Loadings Developed
in Structural Members 139
4.1 Internal Loadings at a
Specified Point 139
4.2 Shear and Moment Functions 145
4.3 Shear and Moment Diagrams
for a Beam 150
4.4 Shear and Moment Diagrams
for a Frame 160
4.5 Moment Diagrams Constructed by the
Method of Superposition 165
Fundamental Problems 170
Problems 174
Project Problem 184
Chapter Review 185
5
Cables and Arches 187
5.1 Cables 187
5.2 Cable Subjected to
Concentrated Loads 188
5.3 Cable Subjected to a Uniform
Distributed Load 190
5.4 Arches 196
5.5 Three-Hinged Arch 197
Problems 203
Chapter Review 209
6
Influence Lines for Statically
Determinate Structures 211
6.1 Influence Lines 211
6.2 Influence Lines for Beams 219
6.3 Qualitative Influence Lines 222
6.4 Influence Lines for Floor Girders 230
6.5 Influence Lines for Trusses 234
6.6 Maximum Influence at a Point due to a
Series of Concentrated Loads 238
6.7 Absolute Maximum Shear and
Moment 248
Fundamental Problems 253
Problems 254
Project Problem 265
Chapter Review 266
7
Approximate Analysis of Statically
Indeterminate Structures 269
7.1 Use of Approximate Methods 269
7.2 Trusses 270
7.3 Vertical Loads on Building Frames 274
7.4 Portal Frames and Trusses 277
7.5 Lateral Loads on Building Frames:
Portal Method 282
7.6 Lateral Loads on Building Frames:
Cantilever Method 288
Problems 294
Project Problem 301
Chapter Review 302
8
Deflections 305
8.1 Deflection Diagrams and the
Elastic Curve 305
8.2 Elastic-Beam Theory 311
8.3 The Double Integration Method 313
8.4 Moment-Area Theorems 320
8.5 Conjugate-Beam Method 330
Fundamental Problems 338
Problems 342
Chapter Review 346
9
Deflections Using Energy
Methods 349
9.1 external Work and Strain energy 349
9.2 Principle of Work and energy 353
9.3 Principle of Virtual Work 354
9.4 Method of Virtual Work: Trusses 356
9.5 Castigliano’s Theorem 363
9.6 Castigliano’s Theorem for Trusses 364
9.7 Method of Virtual Work:
Beams and Frames 370
9.8 Virtual Strain energy Caused
by Axial Load, Shear, Torsion,
and Temperature 381
9.9 Castigliano’s Theorem for Beams
and Frames 387
Fundamental Problems 393
Problems 395
Chapter Review 402
10
Analysis of Statically
Indeterminate Structures
by the Force Method 405
10.1 Statically Indeterminate Structures 405
10.2 Force Method of Analysis:
General Procedure 408
10.3 Maxwell’s Theorem of Reciprocal
Displacements; Betti’s Law 412
10.4 Force Method of Analysis: Beams 413
10.5 Force Method of Analysis: Frames 422
10.6 Force Method of Analysis: Trusses 426
10.7 Composite Structures 429
10.8 Additional Remarks on the Force
Method of Analysis 432
10.9 Symmetric Structures 433
10.10 Influence Lines for Statically
Indeterminate Beams 435
10.11 Qualitative Influence Lines
for Frames 439
Fundamental Problems 446
Problems 447
Chapter Review 458
11
Displacement Method of Analysis:
Slope-Deflection Equations 461
11.1 Displacement Method of Analysis:
General Procedures 461
11.2 Slope-Deflection equations 463
11.3 Analysis of Beams 469
11.4 Analysis of Frames: No Sidesway 477
11.5 Analysis of Frames: Sidesway 482
Problems 490
Project Problem 495
Chapter Review 495
12
Displacement Method of Analysis:
Moment Distribution 497
12.1 General Principles and Definitions 497
12.2 Moment Distribution for Beams 501
12.3 Stiffness-Factor Modifications 510
12.4 Moment Distribution for Frames:
No Sidesway 516
12.5 Moment Distribution for Frames:
Sidesway 518
Problems 526
Chapter Review 531
13
Beams and Frames Having
Nonprismatic Members 533
13.1 Loading Properties of Nonprismatic
Members 533
13.2 Moment Distribution for Structures
Having Nonprismatic Members 538
13.3 Slope-Deflection equations
for Nonprismatic Members 544
Problems 546
Chapter Review 547
14
Truss Analysis Using the
Stiffness Method 549
14.1 Fundamentals of the Stiffness
Method 549
14.2 Member Stiffness Matrix 552
14.3 Displacement and Force
Transformation Matrices 553
14.4 Member Global Stiffness Matrix 556
14.5 Truss Stiffness Matrix 557
14.6 Application of the Stiffness Method for
Truss Analysis 562
14.7 Nodal Coordinates 570
14.8 Trusses Having Thermal Changes and
Fabrication errors 574
14.9 Space-Truss Analysis 580
Problems 582
Chapter Review 583
15
Beam Analysis Using the
Stiffness Method 585
15.1 Preliminary Remarks 585
15.2 Beam-Member Stiffness Matrix 587
15.3 Beam-Structure Stiffness Matrix 589
15.4 Application of the Stiffness Method for
Beam Analysis 589
Problems 602
16
Plane Frame Analysis Using the
Stiffness Method 605
16.1 Frame-Member Stiffness Matrix 605
16.2 Displacement and Force
Transformation Matrices 607
16.3 Frame-Member Global Stiffness
Matrix 609
16.4 Application of the Stiffness Method
for Frame Analysis 610
Problems 619
17
Structural Modeling and
Computer Analysis 623
17.1 General Structural Modeling 623
17.2 Modeling a Structure and its
Members 625
17.3 General Application of a Structural
Analysis Computer Program 630
Computer Problems 635
Problems 636
Project Problems 637
Appendices
A. Matrix Algebra for Structural
Analysis 640
Fundamental Solutions 654
Answers to Selected Problems 680
Index 693