Table of Contents
Clashing Views in Human Sexuality, Eleventh Edition
Unit 1 Understanding Sexual Expression
- Issue 1. Has Sex Become Too Casual?
YES: Rebecca Hagelin, from Parents Should Raise the Bar for Their Kids, http://townhall.com/columnists/RebeccaHagelin/2009/03/ 10/parents_should_raise_the_bar_for_their_kids (March 10, 2009)
NO: Lara Riscol, from Purity, Promiscuity or Pleasure? An original essay written for this volume (2009)
Rebecca Hagelin, author and public speaker on family and culture, argues that sex education promotes casual sex and that schools and parents should do more to protect children. Lara Riscol, an author who explores the connections between society and sexuality, counters that blaming sex education is an oversimplification while arguing that sexuality has always been openly expressed throughout human history.
- Issue 2. Can Sex Be Addictive?
YES: Patrick J. Carnes, from Frequently Asked Questions, http:// www.sexhelp.com/addiction_faq.cfm (November 11, 2009)
NO: Lawrence A. Siegel and Richard M. Siegel, from Sex Addiction: Recovering from a Shady Concept, An original essay written for this volume (2006)
Patrick J. Carnes, considered by many to be an expert on sexual addiction, answers some common questions about this phenomenon, as featured on the Web site http://www.sexhelp.com. Carnes discusses the nature of sexual addiction, including ways in which it might be manifested, and offers suggestions for treatment. Sex therapist Lawrence A. Siegel and sex therapist/educator Richard M. Siegel counter that sexual addiction is grounded in moralistic ideology masquerading as science. They argue that while some sexual behaviors may be dysfunctional, the term sexual addiction pathologizes many common forms of sexual expression that are not problematic.
- Issue 3. Does Sexual Medicine Benefit Society?
YES: David L. Rowland, from Will Medical Solutions to Sexual Problems Make Sexological Care and Science Obsolete? Journal of Sex and Marital Therapy (vol. 33, 2007)
NO: Leonore Tiefer, from Beneath the Veneer: The Troubled Past and Future of Sexual Medicine, Journal of Sex and Marital Therapy (vol. 33, 2007)
David L. Rowland, Professor of Psychology and Dean of the Graduate School at Valparaiso University, Valparaiso, examines the benefits and risks of sexual medicine, and the future of the treatment of sexual problems. Leonore Tiefer, author and Clinical Associate Professor of Psychiatry at New York University School of Medicine, counters that the rise of sexual medicine brings with it risks that should not be ignored.
- Issue 4. Is Oral Sex Really Sex?
YES: Rhonda Chittenden, from Oral Sex Is Sex: Ten Messages about Oral Sex to Communicate to Adolescents, Sexing the Political (May 2004)
NO: Nora Gelperin, from Oral Sex and Young Adolescents: Insights from the Oral Sex Lady, Educators Update (September 2004)
Sexuality educator Rhonda Chittenden says that it is important for young people to expand their narrow definitions of sex and understand that oral sex is sex. Chittenden offers additional educational messages about oral sex. Sexuality trainer Nora Gelperin argues that adult definitions of oral sex are out of touch with the meaning the behavior holds for young people. Rather than impose adult definitions of intimacy, educators should be seeking to help young people clarify and understand their own values.
- Issue 5. Is BDSM a Healthy Form of Sexual Expression?
YES: Wayne Pawlowski, from BDSM: The Ultimate Expression of Healthy Sexuality, an original essay written for this volume (2009)
NO: J. Paul Fedoroff, from Sadism, Sadomasochism, Sex, and Violence, The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry (vol. 53, no. 10, 2008)
Sex educator Wayne Pawlowski provides an explanation of BDSM and describes it as a normal, healthy expression of sexuality. J. Paul Fedoroff describes BDSM as a disorder and a pathology and links BDSM to criminal activity.
Unit 2 Sex Education
- Issue 6. Is There Something Wrong with the Content of Comprehensive Sex Education Curricula?
YES: The Administration for Children and Families (ACF), Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), from Review of Comprehensive Sex Education Curricula, (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2007)
NO: Elokin CaPece, from Commentary on the Review of Comprehensive Sex Education Curricula (2007), American Journal of Sexuality Education (vol. 3, no. 3, 2007)
The Administration for Children and Families, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, presents their findings in a critical analysis of comprehensive sexuality education curricula. Elokin CaPece, Health Educator with Planned Parenthood Greater Memphis Region, disputes the research methods used and the findings of the report, highlighting what she sees as bias in the overall findings.
- Issue 7. Should Sex Ed Teach about Abstinence?
YES: William J. Taverner, from Reclaiming Abstinence in Comprehensive Sex Education, Contemporary Sexuality (2007)
NO: Maureen Kelly, from The Semantics of Sex Ed: Or, Shooting Ourselves in the Foot as We Slowly Walk Backwards, Educators Update (2005)
William J. Taverner, sexuality educator and editor of Taking Sides, argues that sexuality education should teach about abstinence, and introduces a new model to replace problematic abstinence education models of the past. Sexuality educator Maureen Kelly argues that the framing of abstinence by conservatives has essentially made the term politically volatile, and that the one-size-fits-all definition has rendered the term useless to educators.
- Issue 8. Does the Availability of Sexual Health Services Make Some College Campuses Healthier Than Others?
YES: David M. Hall, from The Positive Impact of Sexual Health Services on College Campuses, an original essay written for this volume (2007)
NO: Jens Alan Dana, from A Different Sort of Measure, an original essay written for this volume (2006)
David M. Hall, a graduate professor of human sexuality at Widener University, outlines and comments favorably on the Sexual Health Report Card, a ranking of 100 universities in the United States by Trojan Condoms. Dr. Hall describes the various sexual health indicators for college campuses, as measured by the report, and argues for better sexuality education programs. Jens Alan Dana, a student and school newspaper editor at Brigham Young University, which was ranked lowest in the Trojan survey, argues that the rankings were unscientific, and based on a subjective set of criteria that were self-serving to Trojans interests in marketing condoms.
Unit 3 Sex and Society
- Issue 9. Should Children Have an HPV Vaccination before They Enroll in School?
YES: Cynthia Dailard, from The Public Health Promise and Potential Pitfalls of the Worlds First Cervical Cancer Vaccine, The Guttmacher Report on Public Policy (Winter 2006)
NO: Roni Rabin, from A New Vaccine for Girls, but Should It Be Compulsory? New York Times ( July 18, 2006)
Cynthia Dailard, a senior public policy associate for the Alan Guttmacher Institute, outlines the potential for a new vaccination to prevent the spread of the human papillomavirus (HPV), a sexually transmitted infection that causes genital warts and most cases of cervical cancer. Dailard explains and summarizes the views of experts who believe that widespread vaccinations of preadolescent girls will dramatically reduce the incidence of HPV in the United States and abroad, especially in developing nations. New York Times columnist Roni Rabin acknowledges the potential for the HPV vaccination, but contends that cervical cancer can be staved off more economically by encouraging girls and women to have routine Pap smears.
- Issue 10. Should Libraries and Other Places That Provide Public Wi-Fi Restrict the Sexual Content?
YES: American Family Association, from Library Internet Filtering: Internet Porn in Public Libraries and Schools, http://www.afa.net/lif/schools.asp (2007)
NO: Donald Dyson and Brent Satterly, from Hey, Uncle Sam. Let my Wi-Fi go! an original essay written for this volume (2009)
The American Family Association, an organization that advocates for traditional family values, argues that library filtering software is essential to protect children from harm. Donald Dyson, Ph.D., and Brent Satterly, Ph.D., professors at Widener University, argue that filtering software limits free access to information and state that Wi-Fi should be unrestricted in all settings, including libraries.
- Issue 11. Should the FCC Fine TV Stations That Broadcast Indecency?
YES: Federal Communications Commission, from FCC Consumer Facts: Obscene, Profane, and Indecent Broadcasts, http://www.fcc.gov/eb/Orders/2001/fcc01090.doc (2001)
NO: Judith Levine, from Is Indecency Harmful to Minors? an adaptation of an article from Extra! www.fair.org (October 2004)
The Federal Communications Commission (FCC), a U.S. government agency charged with regulating the content of the broadcast airways, including television and radio, outlines what it defines as indecent broadcast material and describes its enforcement policy. Author Judith Levine traces the history of censorship in the United States, and argues that much of what the FCC has determined is indecent sexual speech is not, in fact, harmful to children.
- Issue 12. Should Prostitution Be Legalized?
YES: Susan Milstein, from Want a Safer Community? Legalize Prostitution, an original essay written for this volume (2009)
NO: Donna M. Hughes, from The Demand: Where Sex Trafficking Begins, text of a speech given at the conference A Call to Action: Joining the Fight Against Trafficking in Persons, Rome, Italy (2004)
Susan A. Milstein, Ed.D., CHES, associate professor in the Health Department at Montgomery College and advisory board member for Mens Health Network, argues that while the legalization of prostitution will not stop all of the social problems associated with the institution, the benefits of legalization make it the best option. Donna M. Hughes, Ph.D., professor at the University of Rhode Island and leading international researcher on trafficking of women and children, counters that the criminalization of prostitution not only reduces demand, but also slows the spread of international sex trafficking.
- Issue 13. Should Society Support Cohabitation before Marriage?
YES: Dorian Solot and Marshall Miller, from Unmarried to Each Other: The Essential Guide to Living Together as an Unmarried Couple (Marlowe & Company, 2002)
NO: David Popenoe and Barbara Dafoe Whitehead, from Should We Live Together? What Young Adults Need to Know About Cohabitation Before Marriage: A Comprehensive Review of Research (The National Marriage Project, 2001)
Dorian Solot and Marshall Miller, founders of the Alternatives to Marriage Project (www.unmarried.org), describe some of the challenges faced by people who choose to live together without marrying, and offer practical advice for couples who face discrimination. David Popenoe and Barbara Dafoe Whitehead, directors of the National Marriage Project (marriage.rutgers.edu), contend that living together before marriage is not a good way to prepare for marriage or avoid divorce. They maintain that cohabitation weakens the institution of marriage and poses serious risks for women and children.
Unit 4 Reproductive Choices
- Issue 14. Should Pharmacists Have the Right to Refuse Contraceptive Prescriptions?
YES: Eileen P. Kelly, from Morally Objectionable Work Assignments: Catholic Social Teaching and Public Policy Perspectives, The Catholic Social Science Review (vol. 12, 2007)
NO: National Womens Law Center, from Pharmacy Refusals 101 ( July 2009)
Eileen Kelly, a professor of Management at Ithaca College, argues that conscience clauses are necessary to protect the religious liberty and rights of pharmacists and others in the workplace. The National Womens Law Center, a national organization that works to promote issues that impact the lives of women and girls, highlight laws and public opinion while stressing that free and unrestricted access to contraception is in the best interest of womens health.
- Issue 15. Is Abortion Immoral?
YES: Douglas Groothuis, from Why I am Pro-Life: A Short, Nonsectarian Argument, adapted from http://theconstructivecurmudgeon.blogspot.com/2009/03/why-i-am-pro-life-short-nonsectarian.html (2009)
NO: Jennifer Webster, from Choosing Abortion is Choosing Life, an original essay written for this volume (2009)
Douglas Groothuis, author and professor of philosophy at Denver Seminary, draws on the philosophical tradition to present his moral argument against abortion. Jennifer Webster, projects coordinator for the Network for Reproductive Options, asserts that the choice of abortion is a multifactoral decision that always expresses a moral consideration.
- Issue 16. Should There Be Restrictions on the Number of Embryos Transferred during In-Vitro Fertilization?
YES: Charalambos Siristatidis and Mark Hamilton, from Single Embryo Transfer, Obstetrics, Gynecology, & Reproductive Medicine ( June 2007)
NO: William Saletan, from Crocktuplets: Hijacking the Octuplets Backlash to Restrict IVF, Accessed May 01, 2009, at http://www.slate.com/id/2212876/
Charalambos Siristatidis, an obstetrician, and Mark Hamilton, a gynecologist, advocate for restrictions on the number of embryos implanted during in-vitro fertilization, presenting evidence for the reduction of risk to mother and child. William Saletan, national correspondent for slate.com and author acknowledges the inherent risk of multiple embryo transfer but argues that any attempts to legislate the practice must consider womens reproductive autonomy.
- Issue 17. Should Parents Be Allowed to Select the Sex of Their Baby?
YES: John A. Robertson, from Extending Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis: Medical and Non-Medical Uses, Journal of Medical Ethics (vol. 29, 2003)
NO: Marcy Darnovsky, from Revisiting Sex Selection: The Growing Popularity of New Sex Selection Methods Revives an Old Debate, http://www.gene-watch.org/genewatch/articles/17-1darnovsky.html ( JanuaryFebruary 2004)
Law professor John A. Robertson argues that preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD), a new technique that allows parents-to-be to determine the gender of their embryo before implantation in the uterus, should be permissible. Robertson argues that it is not sexist to want a baby of a particular gender and that the practice should not be restricted. Marcy Darnovsky, associate director of the Center for Genetics and Society, argues that by allowing PGD for sex selection, governments are starting down a slippery slope that could create an era of consumer eugenics.
Unit 5 Gender and Sexual Orientation
- Issue 18. Is Gender Identity Disorder an Appropriate Psychiatric Diagnosis?
YES: Mercedes Allen, from Destigmatization Versus Coverage and Access: The Medical Model of Transsexuality at http://dentedbluemercedes.wordpress.com/2008/04/05/destigmatization-versus-coverage-and-access-the-medical-model-of-transsexuality/ (2008)
NO: Kelley Winters, from GID Reform Advocates, Issues of GID Diagnosis for Transsexual Women and Men, from http://www.gidreform.org/GID30285a.pdf (2007)
Mercedes Allen, educator, trainer, and founder of AlbertaTrans.org, recognizes the bias in the DSMs classification of Gender Identity Disorder as a mental disorder, but argues that changes run the risk of leaving the trans community at risk of losing medical care and treatment. Kelley Winters, Ph.D, writer and founder of GID Reform Advocates, argues the inclusion of Gender Identity Disorder in the DSM adds to the stigma faced by transpersons and that reclassification is necessary in order to adequately address the populations health care needs.
- Issue 19. Should Corporations Ensure Equal Rights for Their Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Employees?
YES: David M. Hall, from Allies at Work (Out & Equal Workplace Advocates, 2009)
NO: Glen E. Lavy, from Behind the Rhetoric: The Social Goals of GLBT Advocacy in Corporate America, Corporate Resource Council at http://www.corporateresourcecouncil.org/white_papers/Behind_The_Rhetoric.pdf (2002)
David Hall outlines, from a chapter in his book Allies at Work: Creating a Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Friendly Works Environment, the need for corporations to work as allies in establishing equal rights for LGBT employees. Glen E. Lavy suggests, on behalf of the Corporate Resource Council, that by offering equal rights to LGBT employees, corporations are doing much more than thatthey are actually signing on to support broader social changes sought by LGBT individuals.
- Issue 20. Should Same-Sex Marriage Be Legal?
YES: Human Rights Campaign, from Answers to Questions about Marriage Equality (Human Rights Campaign, 2009)
NO: John Cornyn, from In Defense of Marriage, National Review ( July 2009)
The Human Rights Campaign (HRC), Americas largest gay and lesbian organization, explains why same-sex couples should be afforded the same legal right to marry as heterosexual couples. John Cornyn, United States senator from Texas, says a constitutional amendment is needed to define marriage as permissible only between a man and a woman. Senator Cornyn contends that the traditional institution of marriage needs to be protected from activist courts that would seek to redefine it.